Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring in critically ill patients

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Abstract

The past few years have witnessed remarkable advances in continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG). The indications and applications for cEEG are broadening, including detection of nonconvulsive seizures, spell characterization, and prognostication. Seizures are common in the critically ill, are usually nonconvulsive, and can easily be missed without cEEG. Interpretation and clinical management of the complex periodic and rhythmic EEG patterns commonly identified in these patients require further study. With the use of quantitative analysis techniques, cEEG can detect cerebral ischemia very early, before permanent neuronal injury occurs. This article reviews the indications and recent advances in cEEG in critically ill patients. Continuous brain monitoring with cEEG is rapidly becoming the standard of care in critically ill patients with neurologic impairment.