Date: 04 Jun 2014

Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI) in Solid Organ and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

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Patients undergoing solid organ and stem cell transplantation are at increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) compared with nontransplant patients. CDI may be associated with significant morbidity in this population including prolonged hospitalization, increased hospital charges, and complications in the transplanted organ. A combination of host factors, including both B-cell and T-cell immunosuppression, in addition to traditional risk factors for CDI such as broad-spectrum antibacterial exposure, are likely to contribute to the elevated risk in this population. This article addresses the current epidemiology and risk factors for CDI in transplant recipients, the downstream complications following this infection, and current management strategies, with an emphasis on novel approaches for primary and recurrent disease including fecal microbiota transplantation.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Transplant and Oncology