Transplant Oncology (M Ison and N Theodoropoulos, Section Editors)

Current Infectious Disease Reports

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 536-543

First online:

Endemic Mycoses in Immunocompromised Hosts

  • Trent R. MalcolmAffiliated withJohns Hopkins University School of Medicine
  • , Peter V. Chin-HongAffiliated withTransplant and Immunocompromised Host Infectious Disease Program, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)UCSF Email author 

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Endemic mycoses remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. As the number of immunosuppressed individuals increases worldwide, the incidence of endemic mycoses is also expected to rise. In immunocompromised patients, endemic mycoses can present in atypical fashion, cause more severe and/or disseminated disease, and result in higher mortality. Despite several noteworthy advances over the past decade, significant challenges remain with regard to the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of endemic mycoses in immunocompromised hosts. This review highlights important developments related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of commonly encountered endemic mycoses. We also discuss emerging topics, knowledge gaps, and areas of future research.


Endemic fungi Endemic mycoses Blastomyces dermatitidis Coccidioides immitis Coccidioides posadasii Histoplasma capsulatum Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Penicillium marneffei Sporothrix schenkii Immunocompromised Immunosuppressed