, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 61-66
Date: 30 Nov 2011

Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Anal Cancer

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Rare in the general population, anal cancer has reached epidemic proportions among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). These cancers are human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated, usually HPV type16, and are analogous to cervical cancer. At present, the rates of anal cancer in this group are 10-fold higher than that of cervical cancer occurring in women in the general population. Although there are no national guidelines for screening for anal intraepithelial dysplasia (AIN), many large HIV clinics are now performing anal cytologic screening in their at-risk patients. This paper outlines the current approach to screening for AIN and its management.