Current Infectious Disease Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 374-382

First online:

Nonbacterial Myositis

  • Nancy F. Crum-CianfloneAffiliated withInfectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health SciencesInfectious Disease Clinic, Naval Medical Center San DiegoClinical Investigation Department (KCA), Naval Medical Center San Diego Email author 

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Infectious myositis is defined as an infection of a skeletal muscle. Infectious myositis is most commonly caused by bacteria; however, a variety of viral, parasitic, and fungal agents may also cause myositis. The pathogenesis of nonbacterial infectious myositis is via direct or hematogenous infection of the musculature or immune mechanisms. Symptoms typically include muscular pain, tenderness, swelling, and/or weakness. The diagnosis of the specific microbe is often suggested by the presence of concordant clinical signs and symptoms, a detailed medical and travel history, and laboratory data. For example, immunocompromised hosts have a heightened risk of fungal myositis, whereas the presence of a travel history to an endemic location and/or eosinophilia may suggest a parasitic cause. Definitive diagnosis requires detecting the organism by specific laboratory testing including serologies, histopathology, and/or cultures. Treatment entails antimicrobial agents against the pathogen, with consideration for surgical drainage for focal purulent collections within the musculature.


Infectious myositis Nonbacterial myositis Viral Fungal Parasitic Influenza Coxsackievirus Human immunodeficiency virus Rhabdomyolysis Candida Cryptococcus Histoplasmosis Aspergillus Trichinosis Cysticercosis Toxoplasmosis Microsporidia