, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 46-55
Date: 12 Jan 2010

Non–AIDS-Defining Malignancies in Patients with HIV in the HAART Era

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The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has drastically changed the scope and spectrum of diseases associated with HIV, shifting from AIDS-related to non–AIDS-related diseases. Studies linking HIV/AIDS databases to cancer registries have shown a dramatic decrease in AIDS-related malignancies and a steady increase in non–AIDS-defining malignancies (NADM). We review the causes underlying the rise in incidence of NADM and the clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment outcomes of the four most commonly encountered NADM in the HAART era. Meta-analysis of published studies show an increase in NADM over the general population, mostly among infection-related cancers such as anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and liver cancer. Among the non-infection-related cancers, lung and skin cancers predominate. The overall effect of HAART on NADM is unsettled. As HIV-infected individuals survive longer, better screening strategies are needed to detect cancer earlier, and prospective data are needed to assess the impact of HAART on cancer outcomes.