, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 389-395
Date: 18 Aug 2009

Management of human and animal bite wound infection: An overview

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Abstract

Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biter’s oral cavity and the victim’s skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections. Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp, Neisseria weaveri, Weeksella zoohelcum, Neisseria canis, Staphylococcus intermedius, nonoxidizer-1, and eugonic oxidizer-2 in dog, Flavobacterium group in pig, and Actinobacillus spp in horse and sheep bites. Vibrio spp, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas spp can cause infections in bites associated with marine settings. In addition to local wound infection, complications include lymphangitis, local abscess, septic arthritis, tenosynovitis, and osteomyelitis. Uncommon complications include endocarditis, meningitis, brain abscess, and sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation especially in immunocompromised individuals. Wound management includes administering local care and using proper antimicrobial therapy when needed.