, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 423-431
Date: 16 Oct 2008

HIV infection in women: Do sex and gender matter?

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Abstract

At least half of all HIV infections occur in women. Most women are of childbearing potential; therefore, issues encompassing reproduction and mother-to-child transmission are critical in the management of this population. The efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is similar in men and women, although rates of adverse events or toxicity may be higher in women, which, in turn, may be related to higher antiretroviral drug levels documented in pharmacokinetic studies. A substantial proportion of women may not derive the benefit of highly active ART because nonsuppressive regimens are commonly used, especially in resource-limited settings, to decrease mother-to-child transmission. The likely emergence of resistant virus can have long-term sequelae for the mother, child, and other exposed individuals. Additional studies are needed of sex/gender-related issues including antiretroviral toxicities, pharmacokinetic profiles of approved and novel agents, ART strategies during pregnancy to minimize HIV resistance, and determination of optimal antiretroviral regimens for women.