Zygomycosis: An emerging fungal infection with new options for management
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- Kauffman, C.A. & Malani, A.N. Curr Infect Dis Rep (2007) 9: 435. doi:10.1007/s11908-007-0066-4
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Zygomycosis occurs primarily in immunosuppressed patients and those with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes remains the most common risk factor; however, zygomycosis has increased among transplant recipients and patients with hematologic malignancy. Treatment or prophylaxis with voriconazole seems to be associated with the development of zygomycosis among severely immunosuppressed patients in these latter risk groups. Rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis is the most common manifestation in patients with diabetes mellitus, but transplant recipients and patients with hematologic malignancy are more likely to develop pulmonary infection. Zygomycosis remains difficult to treat and requires a multifaceted approach involving elimination of predisposing factors, surgical debridement, and antifungal therapy. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B are the treatments of choice. The use of posaconazole has been successful in salvage trials but should not be used as first-line therapy until an effective intravenous formulation is available.