Recent developments in Leishmaniasis: Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment
- Cite this article as:
- Berman, J. Curr Infect Dis Rep (2005) 7: 33. doi:10.1007/s11908-005-0021-1
- 169 Downloads
The outbreaks of cutaneous disease caused by Leishmania tropica in Afghan refugees, visceral disease in Sudanese refugees, and cutaneous disease caused by Leishmania major in American forces in Iraq are examples of the large number of cases of leishmaniasis that can result when naïve human populations intrude into regions where transmission is endemic. Injections of pentavalent antimony for 20 to 30 days have been the standard treatment for all forms of leishmaniasis, but resistance is growing and antimonials have moderate toxicity. Two major advances in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis have been made in the past few years. Liposomal amphotericin B cures virtually all patients, with little side effects. Miltefosine is the first oral agent that is effective. For cutaneous disease, alternatives to antimony have been effective in certain regions but have not yet been generally evaluated.