Current Infectious Disease Reports

, Volume 4, Issue 6, pp 543-549

First online:

Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis

  • Mitchell H. KatzAffiliated withSan Francisco Department of Public Health
  • , Julie Louise GerberdingAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine, University of California, San Franciso, San Franciso General Hospital

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The principles of managing patients with recent HIV exposure are similar whether the exposure occurs in an occupational or nonoccupational setting. For both settings, clinicians should assess the likelihood that HIV and other bloodborne viruses will be transmitted as a consequence of the exposure; advise the patient about the risks and benefits of treatment; choose an appropriate antiretroviral treatment regimen (if the decision is made to treat); screen for other illnesses that may complicate treatment or follow-up; counsel patients about the importance of adhering to treatment; promote safe-sex practices and methods to avoid future exposures; follow the patient for potential side effects of treatment; and provide follow-up care including repeat HIV testing for seroconversion, surveillance for primary HIV infection, and reinforcement of counseling messages.