Alterations in Cardiac Structure and Function in Hypertension
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- Santos, M. & Shah, A.M. Curr Hypertens Rep (2014) 16: 428. doi:10.1007/s11906-014-0428-x
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Hypertension is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, including heart failure with both preserved and reduced ejection fraction. Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) defines the complex and diverse perturbations of cardiac structure and function occurring secondary to hypertension. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the most recognized features of HHD and is an established risk factor for adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in hypertension. Beyond LVH, LV geometry provides additional information regarding the cardiac response to hypertension. Imaging studies from larger cohorts of hypertensive patients reveal wide variability in the prevalence of LVH and LV geometric patterns, with the prevalence of concentric LVH similar to that of eccentric LVH. Hypertension is also associated with concomitant impairments in LV diastolic and systolic function. It remains uncertain why patients develop different patterns of LVH, although demographics and clinical comorbidities appear to influence that response.