Current Hypertension Reports

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 321–330

Gender Differences in Hypertension: Myths and Reality

  • Michael Doumas
  • Vasilios Papademetriou
  • Charles Faselis
  • Peter Kokkinos
Hypertension and the Heart (PW de Leeuw and AH Gradman, Section Editors)

DOI: 10.1007/s11906-013-0359-y

Cite this article as:
Doumas, M., Papademetriou, V., Faselis, C. et al. Curr Hypertens Rep (2013) 15: 321. doi:10.1007/s11906-013-0359-y
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Abstract

Life expectancy is longer in women compared to men, and cardiovascular events occur at a lower rate and at a later age in females than males. The impact of gender on the prevalence, the presentation, and the long-term outcome of cardiovascular disease has long been a topic of active research. Gender differences have been found in several studies but opposite findings also exist. The impact of gender in hypertension and antihypertensive therapy remains poorly clarified. The prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of hypertension exhibit some differences between the two sexes, which are age-dependent. The female advantage in the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive patients might be attenuated by comorbidities and target organ damage. Another aspect of major clinical importance is whether gender differences exist on the effects of antihypertensive agents in blood pressure reduction and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate recent data regarding gender differences in hypertension and incorporate new data into the body of existing knowledge.

Keywords

GenderSexHypertensionPrevalence, AwarenessTreatmentControlTarget organ damageAntihypertensive drugsBlood pressure reductionMorbidityMortalityCardiovascular risk

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Doumas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vasilios Papademetriou
    • 3
  • Charles Faselis
    • 1
  • Peter Kokkinos
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Veteran Affairs Medical Center and George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Aristotle University, Hippokration HospitalThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Veteran Affairs Medical Center and Georgetown UniversityWashingtonUSA