Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function
First Online: 09 June 2012 DOI:
Cite this article as: Sudano, I., Flammer, A.J., Roas, S. et al. Curr Hypertens Rep (2012) 14: 279. doi:10.1007/s11906-012-0281-8 Abstract
The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function.
Keywords Cocoa Flavonols Polyphenols Antioxidants Endothelial function Blood pressure Nitric oxide NO Vascular compliance Coronary heart disease Stroke References Recently published papers of particular interest have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of outstanding importance
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