Epidemiology of Obesity, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Chronic Kidney Disease
Hypertension and Metabolic Disarray: Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity (E Reisin, Section Editor)
First Online: 09 February 2012 DOI:
Cite this article as: Tanner, R.M., Brown, T.M. & Muntner, P. Curr Hypertens Rep (2012) 14: 152. doi:10.1007/s11906-012-0254-y Abstract
The prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased over the past several decades and is expected to continue to increase. Although the individual components of MetS have previously been associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), until recently there were few data on the relationship between MetS itself and incident CKD and ESRD. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated an association between MetS and CKD. When pooling 10 prospective cohort studies, MetS was associated with an increased odds ratio for an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 mL/ min per 1.73 m
2 (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.34–1.80). Additionally, published data suggest an association between MetS and albuminuria. Evidence suggests that lifestyle modifications such as weight reduction, reduced dietary fat intake and cholesterol, and pharmacologic treatments may reduce the burden of MetS and thus the risk for CKD, albuminuria, and ESRD. Keywords Metabolic syndrome Obesity Chronic kidney disease Albuminuria End-stage renal disease Epidemiology Incidence Blood pressure Diabetes HDL cholesterol Triglycerides Interventions Mechanisms References Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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