, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 100-110

What Are New Avenues for Renal Protection, in Addition to RAAS Inhibition?

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Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, with both the incidence and prevalence continuing to increase worldwide. Current treatments include optimization of glycemic and blood pressure control by targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers. More innovative strategies are needed to prevent and treat this disease. New agents and approaches have recently been described that have the potential to delay the progression of diabetic kidney disease and minimize the growing burden of end-stage renal disease. Possible targets include the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the AGE receptor, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, protein kinase C, endothelin receptors, growth factors and cytokines, the vitamin D receptor, Rho-associated kinases, and the renal sympathetic system. This article reviews these recent developments as potential therapeutic interventions that may prevent this disease, with targets generally beyond the RAAS.