Hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease
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- Chanda, R. & Fenves, A.Z. Current Science Inc (2009) 11: 329. doi:10.1007/s11906-009-0056-z
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Hypertension is very common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); it causes early loss of kidney function and accelerated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. African American patients with hypertension and genetic disposition are at an even higher risk for renal disease and ultimately renal failure. Hypertensive patients with CKD should aim for stringent blood pressure (BP) control (target < 130/80 mm Hg) requiring more than one drug with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade as a component of therapy targeting both hyper tension and proteinuria. Management of hypertension in the dialysis population should focus on ambulatory measurements of BP and the use of longer-acting antihypertensive drugs, with their dosage and timing adjusted according to their dialytic clearances. Hypertension is also common among kidney transplant recipients and contributes to graft loss and premature death. The target BP in transplant recipients is the same as in the CKD population, with no preference for one drug group over another. Unless contraindicated, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors remain the drugs of choice for hypertension in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, in whom diastolic cardiac dysfunction is a prominent feature.