Hypertension and kidney disease: A deadly connection
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- Barri, Y.M. Current Science Inc (2008) 10: 39. doi:10.1007/s11906-008-0009-y
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Kidney disease may be the cause or a consequence of hypertension. Hypertension affects 25% of the adult population in the United States. Similarly, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have been steadily increasing in incidence because of the increasing age of the US population and rise in the incidence of risk factors, including hypertension. Substantial evidence supports the notion that elevated blood pressure is the most significant risk factor for developing CKD. Microalbuminuria has been shown to be the early marker of hypertensive renal disease. Furthermore, therapy to reduce microalbuminuria was associated with delayed progression of renal disease. Black Americans are at higher risk for developing hypertensive nephrosclerosis than whites. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with CKD and ESRD and those who have undergone renal transplantation. Studies have documented that elevated serum creatinine and CKD are risk factors for a cardiovascular event. Tight blood pressure control has been shown to reduce microalbuminuria and proteinuria and to delay progression of renal disease. Tailoring antihypertensive medication to the clinical setting to achieve a blood pressure goal is critical in reducing complications from this deadly connection.