Development of microalbuminuria in essential hypertension
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- Redon, J. & Pascual, J.M. Current Science Inc (2006) 8: 171. doi:10.1007/s11906-006-0015-x
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During the past few years, microalbuminuria has become a prognostic marker for cardiovascular and/or renal risk in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. In essential hypertensives, an increased transglomerular passage of albumin may result from several mechanisms—hyperfiltration, glomerular basal membrane abnormalities, endothelial dysfunction, and nephrosclerosis. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the main factors related to microalbuminuria are blood pressure (BP) values and hyperinsulinemia, as an expression of insulin resistance. Genetics, obesity, and smoking, however, have also been implicated as determinants of microalbuminuria in some of the studies. Follow-up studies support the role of BP values and subtle alterations in glucose metabolism, although contributing roles need to be assessed in further studies. It seems that the significance of microalbuminuria in essential hypertension is much broader than expected, and several factors may influence the presence of microalbuminuria. Thus, to reverse microalbuminuria, and to reduce urine albumin excretion and cardiovascular and renal risk, a strategy of multiple approaches may be needed. Whether or not the multiple approaches need to be implemented from the beginning or step by step in an individual approach should be established in the near future.