, Volume 5, Issue 6, pp 513-520

Thyroid hormone and blood pressure regulation

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Abstract

Thyroid hormone has well-recognized effects on the cardiovascular system and blood pressure regulation. Blood pressure is altered across the entire spectrum of thyroid disease. The effects of hyperthyroidism include increased cardiac output, contractility, tachycardia, widened pulse pressure, decreased systemic vascular resistance, and increased basal metabolic rate. The manifestations of hypothyroidism are in marked contrast to those of hyperthyroidism and include decreased cardiac output, narrow pulse pressure, increased systemic vascular resistance, and decreased metabolic rate. Although thyroid hormone affects almost all tissues of the body and mediates changes in homeostasis, adaptations of the cardiovascular system can result in changes in blood pressure to accommodate the new demands on the system. In this paper, we review the direct and indirect thyroid hormone-mediated effects on blood pressure.