Lessons from trials in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients
- Cite this article as:
- Ruilope, L.M. Current Science Inc (2003) 5: 322. doi:10.1007/s11906-003-0041-x
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There is incontrovertible evidence that association of type 2 diabetes with hypertension markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular events, death, and nephropathy. In type 2 diabetes, even blood pressure values usually considered below the threshold for hypertension (ie, 140/90 mm Hg) in nondiabetic subjects represent an additional risk of clinical relevance. Evidence that more intensive blood pressure lowering is beneficial in type 2 diabetes over less intensive lowering is also overwhelming. However, most published trials show the need for combination therapy in the great majority of patients, and even with combination therapy it is difficult to attain the expected goal blood pressure, in particular goal systolic blood pressure. It should be recognized that the systolic blood pressure goal of less than 130 mm Hg is a very difficult one to achieve in diabetics. Evidence of the superiority or inferiority of different drug classes is vague and contradictory. Recent evidence concerning angiotensin II receptor antagonists has shown a significant reduction of cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death, and total mortality when losartan was compared with atenolol, but not when irbesartan was compared with amlodipine. If renal endpoints are considered, evidence of the benefit of angiotensin II receptor antagonists in type 2 diabetes is more robust than that available with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Primary prevention of development of microalbuminuria seems to be greatly facilitated by strict blood pressure control. However, by attaining normal blood pressure levels (< 130/80 mm Hg), better preservation of glomerular filtration rate does not seem to be insured.