, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 113-123,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 12 Apr 2013

Overview of the Current State of the Epidemic


At the end of 2011, about half of the 34.0 million [31.4–35.9 million] people living with HIV infection knew their HIV status. With large regional variations, an estimated 0.8 % of all adults aged 15 to 49 years have HIV infection and HIV subtype diversity is increasing. Although HIV incidence has declined in 39 countries, it is stable or increasing in others. HIV prevalence continues to rise as antiretroviral treatment scale-up results in fewer HIV-related deaths while new infections continue to occur. Increased treatment uptake is likely reducing HIV transmission in countries with large mortality declines. Key populations, including sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people, people who inject drugs and young women in high prevalence settings require effective prevention programs urgently. Correcting mismatches in resource allocation and reducing community viral load will accelerate incidence declines and affect future epidemic trends, if concerted action is taken now.