UNAIDS: Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. 2010. Available at http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/Global_report.htm
. Accessed December 14, 2011.
•• Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(6):493–505. This is the first randomized clinical trial to demonstrate that early initiation of ART (between CD4 350–550 cells/mL) significantly reduces the likelihood of transmitting HIV-1 to sexual partners. HIV-1 serodiscordant couples initiating ART early had 96% fewer HIV-1 infections and had lower incidence of tuberculosis.
•• Baeten J, Donnell D Ndase P, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Celum C, et al. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention among heterosexual men and women. CROI 2012, abstract 29. This randomized clinical trial demonstrated high efficacy of daily oral PrEP in preventing HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa: 67% with tenofovir and 75% with emtricitabine/tenofovir.
Anand A, Shiraishi RW, Bunnell RE, et al. Knowledge of HIV status, sexual risk behaviors and contraceptive need among people living with HIV in Kenya and Malawi. AIDS. 2009;23(12):1565–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Walque D. Sero-discordant couples in five African countries: implications for prevention strategies. Popul Dev Rev. 2007;33(3):501–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaiser R, Bunnell R, Hightower A, et al. Factors associated with HIV infection in married or cohabitating couples in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study. PLoS One. 2011;6(3):e17842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bunnell R, Opio A, Musinguzi J, et al. HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected adults in Uganda: results of a nationally representative survey. AIDS. 2008;22(5):617–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Were WA, Mermin JH, Wamai N, et al. Undiagnosed HIV infection and couple HIV discordance among household members of HIV-infected people receiving antiretroviral therapy in Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;43(1):91–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lingappa JR, Lambdin B, Bukusi EA, et al. Regional differences in prevalence of HIV-1 discordance in Africa and enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into an HIV-1 prevention trial. PLoS One. 2008;3(1):e1411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
• Gray R, Ssempiija V, Shelton J, et al. The contribution of HIV-discordant relationships to new HIV infections in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS. 2011;25(6):863–5. This analysis of HIV-1 infections occurring in couples in a community cohort study in Uganda found that 18% and 13% of new infections are attributable to HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, pre and post ART respectively. This study used sequential population-based HIV-1 prevalence surveys.
Colvin M, Gorgens-Albino M, Kasedde S. Analysis of HIV prevention responses and modes of HIV transmission: the UNAIDS-GAMET supported synthesis process. 2008. Available at http://www.unaidsrstesa.org/reports-and-publications/analysis-hiv-prevention-response-and-modes-hiv-transmission-unaids-gamet-su
. Accessed December 12, 2011.
Coburn BJ, Gerberry DJ, Blower S. Quantification of the role of discordant couples in driving incidence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11(4):263–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eyawo O, de Walque D, Ford N, et al. HIV status in discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10(11):770–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, et al. Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(5):427–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ndase P, Celum C, Thomas K, et al. Outside sexual partnerships and risk of HIV acquisition for HIV uninfected partners in African HIV serodiscordant partnerships. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;59(1):65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Couples HIV Counseling and Testing Intervention and Curriculum. 2007. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/globalaids/resources/prevention/chct.html
. Accessed December 14, 2011.
The World Health Organization: Guidance on Couples HIV Testing and Counselling and Antiretroviral Therapy for Treatment and Prevention in Serodiscordant Couples: Recommendations for a public health approach. Release date 2012.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Division of Global HIV and AIDS (DGHA): Couples HIV Testing and Counseling (CHTC) in Health Care Facilities Trainer’s Manual. Updated and adapted from CDC/DGHA Couples HIV Counseling and Testing Intervention and Training Curriculum (November 2009). In draft, November 2011.
• Matovu JK. Preventing HIV transmission in married and cohabiting HIV-discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa through combination prevention. Curr HIV Res. 2010;8(6):430–40. This review paper presents various HIV-1 prevention interventions, behavioral and biomedical, to include in a combination prevention intervention for HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa.
Allen S, Tice J, Van de Perre P, et al. Effect of serotesting with counselling on condom use and seroconversion among HIV discordant couples in Africa. Bmj. 1992;304(6842):1605–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
The Voluntary HIV-1 Counseling and Testing Efficacy Study Group. Efficacy of voluntary HIV-1 counselling and testing in individuals and couples in Kenya, Tanzania, and Trinidad: a randomised trial. The Lancet. 2000;356(9224):103–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kamenga M, Ryder RW, Jingu M, et al. Evidence of marked sexual behavior change associated with low HIV-1 seroconversion in 149 married couples with discordant HIV-1 serostatus: experience at an HIV counselling center in Zaire. AIDS 4091;5(1):61–7
Allen S, Meinzen-Derr J, Kautzman M, et al. Sexual behavior of HIV discordant couples after HIV counseling and testing. AIDS. 2003;17(5):733–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burton J, Darbes LA, Operario D. Couples-focused behavioral interventions for prevention of HIV: systematic review of the state of evidence. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(1):1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, et al. Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;37(5):1620–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
El-Bassel N, Gilbert L, Witte S, et al. Couple-based HIV prevention in the United States: advantages, gaps, and future directions. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55 Suppl 2:S98–S101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Brookmeyer R, et al. Probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in monogamous, heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda. Lancet. 2001;357(9263):1149–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ware NC, Idoko J, Kaaya S, et al. Explaining adherence success in sub-Saharan Africa: an ethnographic study. PLoS Med. 2009;6(1):e11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stirratt MJ, Remien RH, Smith A, et al. The role of HIV serostatus disclosure in antiretroviral medication adherence. AIDS and Behavior. 2006;10(5):483–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Were E, Wools-Kaloustian K, Baliddawa J, et al. Stakeholders perception of HIV sero-discordant couples in western Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2008;85(7):326–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Bunnell RE, Nassozi J, Marum E, et al. Living with discordance: knowledge, challenges, and prevention strategies of HIV-discordant couples in Uganda. AIDS Care. 2005;17(8):999–1012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beyeza-Kashesya J, Kaharuza F, Mirembe F, et al. The dilemma of safe sex and having children: challenges facing HIV sero-discordant couples in Uganda. Afr Health Sci. 2009;9(1):2–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Porter L, Hao L, Bishai D, et al. HIV status and union dissolution in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Rakai, Uganda. Demography. 2004;41(3):465–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
VanDevanter N, Thacker AS, Bass G, et al. Heterosexual couples confronting the challenges of HIV infection. AIDS Care. 1999;11(2):181–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Semrau K, Kuhn L, Vwalika C, et al. Women in couples antenatal HIV counseling and testing are not more likely to report adverse social events. AIDS. 2005;19(6):603–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emusu D, Ivankova N, Jolly P, et al. Experience of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions after voluntary HIV counselling and testing: a qualitative critical incident study in Uganda. AIDS Care. 2009;21(11):1363–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Were E, Curran K, Delany-Moretlwe S, et al. A prospective study of frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence among African heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples. AIDS. 2011;25(16):2009–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
The World Health Organization: Addressing violence against women in HIV testing and counselling: A meeting report. 2006. Available at www.who.int/gender/documents/VCT_addressing_violence.pdf
. Accessed December 14, 2011.
The World Health Organization. Delivering HIV test results and messages for re-testing and counselling in adults. Geneva: WHO; 2010.Google Scholar
• Grabbe KL, Bunnell R. Reframing HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa using couple-centered approaches. JAMA. 2010;304(3):346–7. This commentary underscores the importance of couples HIV-1 testing and counseling and a couple-focused approach to HIV-1 prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.
Mills EJ, Bakanda C, Birungi J, et al. Life expectancy of persons receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in low-income countries: a cohort analysis from Uganda. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2011;155(4):209–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Cotton D. Life expectancy in Africa: back to the future? Annals of internal medicine. 2011;155(4):265–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Donnell D, Baeten JM, Kiarie J, et al. Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis. Lancet. 2010;375(9731):2092–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sullivan P, Kayitenkore K, Chomba E, et al. Is the reduction of HIV transmission risk while prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) different for men and women? Results from discordant couples in Rwanda and Zambia. V International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Cape Town, South Africa; July 19–22, 2009.
Reynolds SJ, Makumbi F, Nakigozi G, et al. HIV-1 transmission among HIV-1 discordant couples before and after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2011;25(4):473–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bunnell R. HIV prevention for a threatened continent: implementing positive prevention in Africa. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2006;296(7):855–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
• El-Sadr WM, Coburn BJ, Blower S. Modeling the impact on the HIV epidemic of treating discordant couples with antiretrovirals to prevent transmission. AIDS. 2011;25(18):2295–9. A mathematical model estimated the impact of ART initiation on HIV-1 incidence in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in four African countries. HIV-1 incidence reduction and number of infections averted varied by the proportion of the population in stable partnerships, the percentage of serodiscordant couples, and HIV-1 prevalence.
Hughes JP, Hudelson S, Redd A, et al. Analysis of genetic linkage of HIV from couples enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial. VI International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Rome, Italy; July17–20, 2011.
• Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, et al. Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;58(3):e87–93. A cohort study of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya evaluated time to ART initiation in HIV-1-infected partners eligible for free treatment. Socioeconomic status and CD4 count were associated with delayed ART initiation.
Unge C, Johansson A, Zachariah R, et al. Reasons for unsatisfactory acceptance of antiretroviral treatment in the urban Kibera slum, Kenya. AIDS Care. 2008;20(2):146–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haberer J, Baeten J, Celum C, et al. Near perfect early adherence to antiretroviral PrEP against HIV infection among HIV serodiscordant couples as determined by multiple measures: preliminary data from the partners PrEP study. 18th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Boston, USA; February 27–March 2, 2011.
Ware NC, Wyatt MA, Haberer JE, et al. What’s love got to do with it? A theory of adherence to oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV serodiscordant couples. AIDS. 2011;In press.
Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim SS, Frohlich JA, et al. Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. Science. 2010;329(5996):1168–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(27):2587–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thigpen MC, Kebaabetswe PM, Smith DK, et al. Daily oral antiretroviral use for the prevention of HIV infection in heterosexually active young adults in Botswana: results from the TDF2 study. VI International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Rome, Italy; July 17–20, 2011.
FHI 360: FEM-PrEP Project: FHI to initiate orderly closure of FEM-PrEP [Press release]. 2011. Available at http://www.fhi.org/en/Research/Projects/FEM-PrEP.htm
. Accessed December 14, 2011.
Microbicide Trials Network. Microbricide Trials Network statement on decision to discontinue use of oral tenofovir tablets in VOICE, a major HIV prevention study in women [Press release]. 2011. Available at http://www.mtnstopshiv.org/node/3909
. Accessed December 14, 2011.
Karim SS, Karim QA. Antiretroviral prophylaxis: a defining moment in HIV control. Lancet 2011. Epub date: July 21, 2011.
Kim SC, Becker S, Dieffenbach C, et al. Planning for pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: challenges and opportunities. J Int AIDS Soc. 2010;13:24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Underhill K, Operario D, Mimiaga MJ, et al. Implementation science of pre-exposure prophylaxis: preparing for public use. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2010;7(4):210–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Underhill K, Operario D, Skeer M, et al. Packaging PrEP to prevent HIV: an integrated framework to plan for pre-exposure prophylaxis implementation in clinical practice. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55(1):8–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paxton LA, Hope T, Jaffe HW. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection: what if it works? Lancet. 2007;370(9581):89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
• Hallett TB, Baeten JM, Heffron R, et al. Optimal uses of antiretrovirals for prevention in HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples in South Africa: A modelling study. PLoS Med. 2011;8(11). This mathematical model examined the cost-effectiveness of PrEP use before ART initiation, the relative cost-effectiveness of PrEP and early ART at various levels of PrEP efficacy and HIV-1 risk behavior, and optimal timing for combining PrEP and ART in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. The model indicates that at moderate-high PrEP efficacy (>45%) and high ART efficacy (>90%), PrEP may be cost-effective until the HIV-1-infected partner begins ART (CD4 350 in the model) if high-risk couples can be targeted and PrEP delivered cost-effectively.
Nattabi B, Li J, Thompson SC, et al. A systematic review of factors influencing fertility desires and intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for policy and service delivery. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(5):949–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper D, Moodley J, Zweigenthal V, et al. Fertility intentions and reproductive health care needs of people living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for integrating reproductive health and HIV care services. AIDS Behav. 2009;13 Suppl 1:38–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Myer L, Morroni C, Rebe K. Prevalence and determinants of fertility intentions of HIV-infected women and men receiving antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21(4):278–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
• Mugo NR, Heffron R, Donnell D, et al. Increased risk of HIV-1 transmission in pregnancy: a prospective study among African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. AIDS. 2011;25(15):1887–95. A cohort study with over 3400 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa found an increased risk of female-to-male and male-to-female HIV-1 transmission during pregnancy.
Beyeza-Kashesya J, Ekstrom AM, Kaharuza F, et al. My partner wants a child: a cross-sectional study of the determinants of the desire for children among mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples receiving care in Uganda. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laher F, Todd CS, Stibich MA, et al. A qualitative assessment of decisions affecting contraceptive utilization and fertility intentions among HIV-positive women in Soweto, South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2009;13 Suppl 1:47–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heffron R, Were E, Celum C, et al. A prospective study of contraceptive use among African women in HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2010;37(10):621–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Bosire R, et al. Predicting pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples. AIDS and Behavior. 2010;14(5):1066–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grabbe K, Stephenson R, Vwalika B, et al. Knowledge, use, and concerns about contraceptive methods among sero-discordant couples in Rwanda and Zambia. Journal of Women’s Health. 2009;18(9):1449–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Omalley J. Ensuring sexual and reproductive health for people living with HIV: an overview of key human rights, policy and health systems issues. Reproductive Health Matters. 2007;15(29):4–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruskin S, Firestone R, Maccarthy S, et al. HIV and pregnancy intentions: do services adequately respond to women’s needs? Am J Public Health. 2008;98(10):1746–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ngure K, Heffron R, Mugo N, et al. Successful increase in contraceptive uptake among Kenyan HIV-1-serodiscordant couples enrolled in an HIV-1 prevention trial. AIDS. 2009;23 Suppl 1:S89–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
• Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H et al. Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011. Epub date: October 3, 2011. This observational analysis of 3790 African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples found a twofold increased risk of male-to-female and female-to-male HIV-1 transmission during periods of hormonal contraceptive use. Most women were using injectable progestins.
Matthews LT, Mukherjee JS. Strategies for harm reduction among HIV-affected couples who want to conceive. AIDS Behav. 2009;13 Suppl 1:5–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barreiro P, Castilla JA, Labarga P, et al. Is natural conception a valid option for HIV-serodiscordant couples? Hum Reprod. 2007;22(9):2353–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barreiro P, del Romero J, Leal M, et al. Natural pregnancies in HIV-serodiscordant couples receiving successful antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;43(3):324–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vernazza PL, Graf I, Sonnenberg-Schwan U, et al. Pre-exposure prophylaxis and timed intercourse for HIV-discordant couples willing to conceive a child. AIDS. 2011;25(16):2049–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matthews LT, Baeten JM, Celum C, et al. Periconception pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: benefits, risks, and challenges to implementation. AIDS. 2010;24(13):1975–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes JP, Baeten JM, Lingappa JR, et al. Determinants of per coital act HIV-1 infectivity among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. J Infect Dis. 2011;In press.
Allen C, Mbonye M, Seeley J, et al. ABC for people with HIV: responses to sexual behaviour recommendations among people receiving antiretroviral therapy in Jinja, Uganda. Cult Health Sex. 2011;13(5):529–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rispel LC, Metcalf CA, Moody K, et al. Sexual relations and childbearing decisions of HIV-discordant couples: an exploratory study in South Africa and Tanzania. Reproductive Health Matters. 2011;19(37):184–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coldiron ME, Stephenson R, Chomba E, et al. The relationship between alcohol consumption and unprotected sex among known HIV-discordant couples in Rwanda and Zambia. AIDS and Behavior. 2007;12(4):594–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarna A, Chersich M, Okal J, et al. Changes in sexual risk taking with antiretroviral treatment: influence of context and gender norms in Mombasa, Kenya. Cult Health Sex. 2009;11(8):783–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
King R, Khana K, Nakayiwa S, et al. ‘Pregnancy comes accidentally—like it did with me’: reproductive decisions among women on ART and their partners in rural Uganda. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wagner GJ, Holloway I, Ghosh-Dastidar B, et al. Factors associated with condom use among HIV clients in stable relationships with partners at varying risk for HIV in Uganda. AIDS and Behavior. 2010;14(5):1055–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mermin J, Musinguzi J, Opio A, et al. Risk factors for recent HIV infection in Uganda. JAMA. 2008;300(5):540–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, et al. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Med. 2005;2(11):e298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):643–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):657–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baeten JM, Celum C, Coates TJ. Male circumcision and HIV risks and benefits for women. Lancet. 2009;374(9685):182–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wawer MJ, Makumbi F, Kigozi G, et al. Circumcision in HIV-infected men and its effect on HIV transmission to female partners in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;374(9685):229–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mugwanya KK, Whalen C, Celum C, et al. Circumcision of male children for reduction of future risk for HIV: acceptability among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kampala, Uganda. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, et al. Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Celum C, Wald A, Hughes J, et al. Effect of aciclovir on HIV-1 acquisition in herpes simplex virus 2 seropositive women and men who have sex with men: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;371(9630):2109–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watson-Jones D, Weiss HA, Rusizoka M, et al. Effect of herpes simplex suppression on incidence of HIV among women in Tanzania. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(15):1560–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mugwanya K, Baeten JM, Mugo NR, et al. High-dose valacyclovir HSV-2 suppression results in greater reduction in plasma HIV-1 levels compared with standard dose acyclovir among HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfected persons: a randomized, crossover trial. J Infect Dis. 2011;204(12):1912–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serwadda D, Gray RH, Wawer MJ, et al. The social dynamics of HIV transmission as reflected through discordant couples in rural Uganda. AIDS. 1995;9(7):745–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N, et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(13):921–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray RH, Kiwanuka N, Quinn TC, et al. Male circumcision and HIV acquisition and transmission: cohort studies in Rakai, Uganda. Rakai Project Team. AIDS. 2000;14(15):2371–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lingappa JR, Hughes JP, Wang RS, et al. Estimating the impact of plasma HIV-1 RNA reductions on heterosexual HIV-1 transmission risk. PLoS One. 2010;5(9):e12598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang L, Ge Z, Luo J, et al. HIV transmission risk among serodiscordant couples: a retrospective study of former plasma donors in Henan, China. Jaids-J Acq Imm Def. 2010;55(2):232–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar