Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 142–152

Cancer Screening in Patients Infected with HIV


    • Division of Infectious DiseasesMount Sinai School of Medicine
  • Robert Dubrow
    • Yale School of Public HealthYale School of Medicine
  • Michael Silverberg
    • Kaiser Permanente Northern CaliforniaDivision of Research
  • Kristina Crothers
    • University of Washington School of Medicine
  • Scott Braithwaite
    • New York University Langone Medical Center
  • Amy Justice
    • VA Connecticut Healthcare System and Yale University Schools of Medicine and Public Health

DOI: 10.1007/s11904-011-0085-5

Cite this article as:
Sigel, K., Dubrow, R., Silverberg, M. et al. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep (2011) 8: 142. doi:10.1007/s11904-011-0085-5


Non–AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to the general population; anal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and lung cancer all have good evidence demonstrating an enhanced risk in HIV-infected persons. A number of cancer screening interventions have shown benefit for specific cancers in the general population, but data on the application of these tests to HIV-infected persons are limited. Here we review the epidemiology and background literature relating to cancer screening interventions in HIV-infected persons. We then use these data to inform a conceptual model for evaluating HIV-infected patients for cancer screening.


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)Cancer screeningNon-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs)Combination antiretroviral therapy(cART)Cervical cancerAnal cancerColorectal cancerProstate cancerBreast cancerHepatocellular cancerLung cancerPap testingPayoff timeLife-expectancyHigh-resolution anoscopy (HRA)Anal cytologyDigital rectal examination (DRE)MammographyFecal occult blood testing (FOBT)UltrasonographyColonoscopySigmoidoscopyAlpha-fetoprotein (AFP)Low-dose CT

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011