Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men--New York City and California. MMWR 1981;30(25):305–8, Jul 3.
UNAIDS. Report on the global AIDS epidemic. 2010.
Hammer SM, Squires KE, Hughes MD, et al. A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team. NEngl J Med. 1997;337(11):725–33.CrossRef
Lohse N, Hansen AB, Pedersen G, et al. Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995–2005. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(2):87–95.PubMed
Hall HI, Song R, Rhodes P, et al. Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States. JAMA. 2008;300(5):520–9.PubMedCrossRef
Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):643–56.PubMedCrossRef
Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):657–66.PubMedCrossRef
••Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim SS, Frohlich JA, et al. Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. Science 2010;329(5996):1168–74, New York, NY Sep 3. First clinical trial documenting that a vaginal preparation of tenofovir was associated with decreased transmission of HIV.
Buchbinder SP, Mehrotra DV, Duerr A, et al. Efficacy assessment of a cell-mediated immunity HIV-1 vaccine (the Step Study): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, test-of-concept trial. Lancet. 2008;372(9653):1881–93.PubMedCrossRef
Rerks-Ngarm S, Pitisuttithum P, Nitayaphan S, et al. Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to prevent HIV-1 infection in Thailand. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(23):2209–20.PubMedCrossRef
Townsend CL, Cortina-Borja M, Peckham CS, de Ruiter A, Lyall H, Tookey PA. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000–2006. AIDS (London, England). 2008;22(8):973–81.CrossRef
Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N, et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(13):921–9.PubMedCrossRef
Tovanabutra S, Robison V, Wongtrakul J, et al. Male viral load and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Thailand. JAIDS (1999). 2002;29(3):275–83.
Zhang H, Dornadula G, Beumont M, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the semen of men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(25):1803–9.PubMedCrossRef
Cohen MS, Gay C, Kashuba AD, Blower S, Paxton L. Narrative review: antiretroviral therapy to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(8):591–601.PubMed
Graham SM, Holte SE, Peshu NM, et al. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy leads to a rapid decline in cervical and vaginal HIV-1 shedding. AIDS (London, England). 2007;21(4):501–7.CrossRef
Chan DJ, Ray JE, McNally L, Batterham M, Smith DE. Correlation between HIV-1 RNA load in blood and seminal plasma depending on antiretroviral treatment status, regimen and penetration of semen by antiretroviral drugs. Curr HIV Res. 2008;6(5):477–84.PubMedCrossRef
Ghosn J, Viard JP, Katlama C, et al. Evidence of genotypic resistance diversity of archived and circulating viral strains in blood and semen of pre-treated HIV-infected men. AIDS (London, England). 2004;18(3):447–57.CrossRef
Liuzzi G, Chirianni A, Zaccarelli M, et al. Differences between semen and plasma of nucleoside reverse transcriptase resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients, using a rapid assay. In vivo (Athens, Greece). 2004;18(4):509–12.
Marcelin AG, Tubiana R, Lambert-Niclot S, et al. Detection of HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma samples from treated patients with undetectable HIV-1 RNA in blood plasma. AIDS (London, England). 2008;22(13):1677–9.CrossRef
Lorello G, la Porte C, Pilon R, Zhang G, Karnauchow T, MacPherson P. Discordance in HIV-1 viral loads and antiretroviral drug concentrations comparing semen and blood plasma. HIV Med. 2009;10(9):548–54.PubMedCrossRef
•Sheth PM, Kovacs C, Kemal KS, et al. Persistent HIV RNA shedding in semen despite effective antiretroviral therapy. AIDS (London, England) 2009;23(15):2050–4, Sep 24. Cohort study of men initiating antiretroviral therapy documenting intermittent detectable viral loads in seminal fluid despite suppression of plasma viral load.
Kalichman SC, Di Berto G, Eaton L. Human immunodeficiency virus viral load in blood plasma and semen: review and implications of empirical findings. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(1):55–60.PubMedCrossRef
Castilla J, Del Romero J, Hernando V, Marincovich B, Garcia S, Rodriguez C. Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV. JAIDS (1999). 2005;40(1):96–101.CrossRef
Sullivan PS, Kayetinkore K, Chomba E et al. Reduction of HIV Transmission Risk and High Risk Sex while Prescribed ART: Results from Discordant Couples in Rwanda and Zambia. [abstract52bLB]. Presented at the 16th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Montreal, Canada; February 8–11, 2009.
Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, et al. Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(5):427–39.PubMedCrossRef
Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Wald A, et al. Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375(9717):824–33.PubMedCrossRef
••Donnell D, Baeten JM, Kiarie J, et al. Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis. Lancet 2010;375(9731):2092–8, Jun 12. Cohort study nested with the HSV suppression trial which demonstrates that provision of HAART in the setting of heterosexual discordant couples was associated with reduced sexual transmission.
•Attia S, Egger M, Muller M, Zwahlen M, Low N. Sexual transmission of HIV according to viral load and antiretroviral therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS (London, England) 2009;23(11):1397–404, Jul 17. Important meta-analysis of heterosexual transmission of HIV.
Wang L, Ge Z, Luo J, et al. HIV Transmission Risk Among Serodiscordant Couples: A Retrospective Study of Former Plasma Donors in Henan, China. JAIDS (1999). 2010;55(2):232–8.CrossRef
Fox J, Fidler S. Sexual transmission of HIV-1. Antiviral Res;85(1):276–85, Jan.
Baggaley RF, White RG, Boily MC. HIV transmission risk through anal intercourse: systematic review, meta-analysis and implications for HIV prevention. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39(4):1048–63.PubMedCrossRef
•Jin F, Jansson J, Law M, et al. Per-contact probability of HIV transmission in homosexual men in Sydney in the era of HAART. AIDS 2010 (London, England) 24(6):907–13, Mar 27. This study assessed per-contact transmission of HIV among MSM. Transmission rates remain similar to other pre-HAART estimates, despite assumed acceptable uptake of HAART in the community.
Falster K, Gelgor L, Shaik A, et al. Trends in antiretroviral treatment use and treatment response in three Australian states in the first decade of combination antiretroviral treatment. Sex Health. 2008;5(2):141–54.PubMedCrossRef
Wilson DP, Jin F, Jansson J, Zablotska I, Grulich AE. Infectiousness of HIV-infected men who have sex with men in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2010;24(15):2420–1.PubMedCrossRef
Baggaley RF, Fraser C. Modelling sexual transmission of HIV: testing the assumptions, validating the predictions. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5(4):269–76.PubMedCrossRef
Blower SM, Gershengorn HB, Grant RM. A tale of two futures: HIV and antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco. Science (New York, NY). 2000;287(5453):650–4.CrossRef
Velasco-Hernandez JX, Gershengorn HB, Blower SM. Could widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy eradicate HIV epidemics? Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2(8):487–93.PubMedCrossRef
Cohen MS, Gay CL. Treatment to prevent transmission of HIV-1. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50 Suppl 3:S85–95.PubMedCrossRef
•Lima VD, Johnston K, Hogg RS, et al. Expanded access to highly active antiretroviral therapy: a potentially powerful strategy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008;198(1):59–67, Jul 1. Mathematical model demonstrating potential reduction in HIV diagnoses linked to expanding HAART coverage within 2006 guideline parameters.
Lima VD, Hogg RS, Montaner JS. Expanding HAART treatment to all currently eligible individuals under the 2008 IAS-USA Guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(6):e10991.PubMedCrossRef
••Granich RM, Gilks CF, Dye C, De Cock KM, Williams BG. Universal voluntary HIV testing with immediate antiretroviral therapy as a strategy for elimination of HIV transmission: a mathematical model. Lancet 2009 Jan 3;373(9657):48–57. Important mathematical model set in South Africa examining a test and treat approach to eliminating the HIV epidemic within Africa.
Dodd PJ, Garnett GP, Hallett TB. Examining the promise of HIV elimination by ‘test and treat’ in hyperendemic settings. AIDS (London, England). 2010;24(5):729–35.CrossRef
•Walensky RP, Paltiel AD, Losina E, et al. Test and treat DC: forecasting the impact of a comprehensive HIV strategy in Washington DC. Clin Infect Dis 2010;51(4):392–400, Aug 15. Mathematical model of test and treat assumptions within Washington, DC. While expansion of HAART was associated with decreased transmission, it was unlikely to halt the epidemic.
•Wood E, Kerr T, Marshall BD, et al. Longitudinal community plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations and incidence of HIV-1 among injecting drug users: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2009;338:b1649. Assessment of effects of community viral load and time to HIV seroconversion. After community viral load was reduced, there was no longer a statistically significant association with HIV incidence.
••Das M, Chu PL, Santos GM, et al. Decreases in community viral load are accompanied by reductions in new HIV infections in San Francisco. PloS One 2010;5(6):e11068. Assessment of community viral load and new HIV diagnoses in San Francisco. HAART expansion and reduction in viral load was associated with decrease in new HIV diagnoses.
••Montaner JS, Lima VD, Barrios R, et al. Association of highly active antiretroviral therapy coverage, population viral load, and yearly new HIV diagnoses in British Columbia, Canada: a population-based study. Lancet 2010;376(9740):532–9, Aug 14. Population-based Canadian study documenting that expansion of HAART was associated with decreases in community viral load and decreases in new HIV diagnoses.
Morrison CS, Demers K, Kwok C, et al. Plasma and cervical viral loads among Ugandan and Zimbabwean women during acute and early HIV-1 infection. AIDS (London, England). 2010;24(4):573–82.CrossRef
Wawer MJ, Gray RH, Sewankambo NK, et al. Rates of HIV-1 transmission per coital act, by stage of HIV-1 infection, in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2005;191(9):1403–9.PubMedCrossRef
Hollingsworth TD, Anderson RM, Fraser C. HIV-1 transmission, by stage of infection. J Infect Dis. 2008;198(5):687–93.PubMedCrossRef
Prabhu VS, Hutchinson AB, Farnham PG, Sansom SL. Sexually acquired HIV infections in the United States due to acute-phase HIV transmission: an update. AIDS (London, England). 2009;23(13):1792–4.CrossRef
Marshall BD, Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Zhang R, Montaner JS, Wood E. No evidence of increased sexual risk behaviour after initiating antiretroviral therapy among people who inject drugs. AIDS (London, England). 2010;24(14):2271–8.CrossRef
Venkatesh KK, de Bruyn G, Lurie MN, et al. Decreased sexual risk behavior in the era of HAART among HIV-infected urban and rural South Africans attending primary care clinics. AIDS (London, England). 2010;24(17):2687–96.CrossRef
Smith RJ, Okano JT, Kahn JS, Bodine EN, Blower S. Evolutionary dynamics of complex networks of HIV drug-resistant strains: the case of San Francisco. Science (New York, NY). 2010;327(5966):697–701.CrossRef
Gill VS, Lima VD, Zhang W, et al. Improved virological outcomes in British Columbia concomitant with decreasing incidence of HIV type 1 drug resistance detection. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(1):98–105.PubMedCrossRef
Johnston KM, Levy AR, Lima VD, et al. Expanding access to HAART: a cost-effective approach for treating and preventing HIV. AIDS (London, England). 2010;24(12):1929–35.CrossRef
Coates TJ, Richter L, Caceres C. Behavioural strategies to reduce HIV transmission: how to make them work better. Lancet. 2008;372(9639):669–84.PubMedCrossRef
Reynolds SJ, Quinn TC. Setting the stage: current state of affairs and major challenges. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50 Suppl 3:S71–6.PubMedCrossRef
Fang CT, Hsu HM, Twu SJ, et al. Decreased HIV transmission after a policy of providing free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Taiwan. J Infect Dis. 2004;190(5):879–85.PubMedCrossRef