Coinfecting viruses as determinants of HIV disease
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- Lisco, A., Vanpouille, C. & Margolis, L. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep (2009) 6: 5. doi:10.1007/s11904-009-0002-3
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The human body constitutes a balanced ecosystem of its own cells together with various microbes (“host-microbe ecosystem”). The transmission of HIV-1 and the progression of HIV disease in such an ecosystem are accompanied by de novo infection by other microbes or by activation of microbes that were present in the host in homeostatic equilibrium before HIV-1 infection. In recent years, data have accumulated on the interactions of these coinfecting microbes—viruses in particular—with HIV. Coinfecting viruses generate negative and positive signals that suppress or upregulate HIV-1. We suggest that the signals generated by these viruses may largely affect HIV transmission, pathogenesis, and evolution. The study of the mechanisms of HIV interaction with coinfecting viruses may indicate strategies to suppress positive signals, enhance negative signals, and lead to the development of new and original anti-HIV therapies.