, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 37-46

Hepatocellular Carcinoma: When to Transplant Outside of Milan Criteria

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The worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) continues to rise and liver transplantation (LT) represents an established curative treatment for early stage disease. As a result of organ shortage, guidelines have restricted transplantation to HCC patients with an expected 5-year post transplantation survival greater than 70 %. The Milan criteria (MC) remain a reliable and noninvasive instrument for selecting patients with 5-year survival meeting this criteria. Since the adoption of the MC by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), attempts have been made to expand MC to account for the projected increase in the incidence of HCC over the next 20 years. An area of active debate focuses on identifying a subgroup of patients outside of MC with similar or better outcomes through either new expanded criteria or identifying other prognostic factors to enhance MC.