Global Perspectives: Australia (W Sievert, Section Editor)

Current Hepatitis Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 243-249

First online:

Clinical Implications of the Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to HBV and HCV

  • Suong T. LeAffiliated withDepartment of Gastroenterology, Southern HealthDepartment of Medicine, Monash University (MMC)
  • , Kumar VisvanathanAffiliated withDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Southern HealthDepartment of Medicine, Monash University (MMC)Department of Infectious Diseases, Monash Medical Centre Email author 

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Abstract

The tolerogenicity of the liver renders it vulnerable to hepatotrophic pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Both viruses have successfully co-evolved within the human host by evading and counteracting immune control. Inadequate cell culture and animal models have limited definitive characterization of the immunological mechanisms arbitrating virus and host co-existence. The clinical sequelae of chronic viral hepatitis such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are not directly mediated by the viruses but rather by hepatotoxic immunological mediators and cytokines. The pro-fibrotic T helper 2 (Th2) response promoted by this altered cytokine milieu is associated with viral persistence. In this chapter, the innate and adaptive immune response to acute and chronic HBV and HCV is reviewed with particular focus on its clinical implications.

Keywords

Natural killer cells T lymphocytes Pattern recognition receptors TRAIL