, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 186-192
Date: 19 Mar 2014

Treatment of Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

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Disease relapse remains a major cause of mortality for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Historically, patients who experience disease relapse after HSCT have a dismal prognosis with very few long-term survivors. There is no standard treatment for patients in this situation given the variability in patient characteristics, disease biology, complications such as graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and infections, donor availability, and patient choice. Here, we discuss the current options for treatment of relapsed AML after HSCT including conventional chemotherapy, novel agents, donor leukocyte infusion, second allogeneic HSCT, and emerging therapies.