Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 370–378

Febrile Neutropenia in Hematologic Malignancies

Myelodysplastic Syndromes (M Sekeres, Section Editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s11899-013-0171-4

Cite this article as:
Keng, M.K. & Sekeres, M.A. Curr Hematol Malig Rep (2013) 8: 370. doi:10.1007/s11899-013-0171-4


Febrile neutropenia (FN) can occur at any time during the course of a malignancy, especially hematologic malignancies, from diagnosis to end-stage disease. The majority of FN episodes are typically confined to the period of initial diagnosis and active treatment. Because of suppressed inflammatory responses, fever is often the sole sign of infection. As FN is a true medical emergency, prompt identification of and intervention in FN can prolong survival and improve quality of life. This article reviews FN in the setting of hematologic malignancies, specifically myelodysplastic syndromes and acute leukemias, providing an overview of the definition of fever and neutropenia, diagnostic approach, categories of risk/risk assessment, management in patients at low and high risk, and prophylaxis of infections.


Febrile neutropeniaNeutropenic feverNeutropeniaFeverAntibiotic prophylaxisEmpiric AntibioticsCancerHematologic malignancies

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Leukemia ProgramClevelandUSA