Lymphomas (J Armitage and P McLaughlin, Section Editors)

Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 221-227

First online:

Biological Therapy Doublets: Pairing Rituximab with Interferon, Lenalidomide, and Other Biological Agents in Patients with Follicular Lymphoma

  • Eva KimbyAffiliated withDivision of HematologyDivision of Hematology, Department of Medicine at Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital Email author 

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Rituximab (R) is a monoclonal antibody with high therapeutic efficacy in low-grade CD20+ lymphoma. The combination of R with chemotherapy is the most common treatment option for patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). The efficacy of R has also been shown to be augmented, when used in combinations with biologicals such as interferon-alpha-2a (IFN), bortezomib, or lenalidomide. The best combination of these drugs are not well defined and a better understanding of pharmacokinetics and timing of drugs relative to the rituximab infusion is crucial. Other new targeted agents, such as inhibitors of BTK and PI3Kdelta, have also been promising in FL. Translational research questions should be added to clinical trial protocols to increase the knowledge on how the tumor microenvironment and the host immune system affect the response to the different drugs and combinations with the aim of a more individualized therapy.


Follicular lymphoma Biological therapy Rituximab Interferon Lenalidomide Bortezomib Tumor immunoenvironment