Rossano JW, Kim JJ, Decker JA, et al. Prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of heart failure-related hospitalizations in children in the United States: a population-based study. J Card Fail. 2012;18:459–70.PubMedCrossRef
Gibbon Jr JH. Application of a mechanical heart and lung apparatus to cardiac surgery. Minn Med. 1954;37:171–85. passim.PubMed
Liotta D, Hall CW, Henly WS, Cooley DA, Crawford ES, Debakey ME. Prolonged assisted circulation during and after cardiac or aortic surgery. Prolonged partial left ventricular bypass by means of intracorporeal circulation. Am J Cardiol. 1963;12:399–405.PubMedCrossRef
Cooley DA, Liotta D, Hallman GL, Bloodwell RD, Leachman RD, Milam JD. Orthotopic cardiac prosthesis for two-staged cardiac replacement. Am J Cardiol. 1969;24:723–30.PubMedCrossRef
Rose EA, Gelijns AC, Moskowitz AJ, et al. Long-term use of a left ventricular assist device for end-stage heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1435–43.PubMedCrossRef
Kirklin JK, Naftel DC, Kormos RL, et al. Third INTERMACS annual report: the evolution of destination therapy in the United States. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011;30:115–23.PubMedCrossRef
Jefferies JL, Price JF, Morales DL. Mechanical support in childhood heart failure. Heart Fail Clin. 2010;6:559-73, x.
• Cabrera AG, Sundareswaran K, Samayoa AX, Farrar DJ, Frazier OH, Morales DL. Outcomes of pediatric patients supported by the Heartmate II LVAD in the USA. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:S121. This analysis documents the increasing use of the HeartMate II device in children but also underscores that the management of pediatric patients may present a different set of challenges.
• Miera O, Potapov EV, Redlin M, et al. First experiences with the HeartWare ventricular assist system in children. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91:1256-60. This report heralds expansion of next-generation devices from exclusive use in adults into the pediatric realm. Application of existing adult technologies adds to the pediatric HF treatment armamentarium but further emphasizes the need for careful patient selection.
Fiser WP, Yetman AT, Gunselman RJ, et al. Pediatric arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2003;22:770–7.PubMedCrossRef
Gajarski RJ, Mosca RS, Ohye RG, et al. Use of extracorporeal life support as a bridge to pediatric cardiac transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2003;22:28–34.PubMedCrossRef
Stiller B, Hetzer R, Weng Y, et al. Heart transplantation in children after mechanical circulatory support with pulsatile pneumatic assist device. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2003;22:1201–8.PubMedCrossRef
Ishino K, Loebe M, Uhlemann F, Weng Y, Hennig E, Hetzer R. Circulatory support with paracorporeal pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD) in infants and children. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. 1997;11:965–72.CrossRef
del Nido PJ, Dalton HJ, Thompson AE, Siewers RD. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator rescue in children during cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery. Circulation. 1992;86:II300-4.
Duncan BW, Ibrahim AE, Hraska V, et al. Use of rapid-deployment extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the resuscitation of pediatric patients with heart disease after cardiac arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;116:305–11.PubMedCrossRef
• Lowry AW, Adachi I, Gregoric ID, Jeewa A, Morales DL. The potential to avoid heart transplantation in children: outpatient bridge to recovery with an intracorporeal continuous-flow left ventricular assist device in a 14-year-old. Congenital heart disease 2012. An important management strategy is defined with this report of recovery in a 14-year-old patient. Pediatric patients must be assessed for evidence of durable myocardial recovery and, with this, possibly avoid need for transplant.
Shamszad P, Cabrera AG, Kim JJ, et al. Perioperative atrial tachycardia is associated with increased mortality in infants undergoing cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012.
•• Almond CS, Buchholz H, Massicotte P, et al. Berlin Heart EXCOR Pediatric ventricular assist device Investigational Device Exemption study: study design and rationale. Am Heart J. 2011;162:425-35 e6. This landmark study resulted in FDA approval of a pediatric-specific device. This will function as the precedent for future pediatric MCS investigation.
Maskatia SA, Decker JA, Spinner JA, et al. Restrictive physiology is associated with poor outcomes in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Pediatr Cardiol. 2012;33:141–9.PubMedCrossRef
Wilson SR, Givertz MM, Stewart GC, Mudge Jr GH. Ventricular assist devices the challenges of outpatient management. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:1647–59.PubMedCrossRef
Miller LW, Pagani FD, Russell SD, et al. Use of a continuous-flow device in patients awaiting heart transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:885–96.PubMedCrossRef
Slaughter MS, Rogers JG, Milano CA, et al. Advanced heart failure treated with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2241–51.PubMedCrossRef
Bellinger DC, Wypij D, Kuban KC, et al. Developmental and neurological status of children at 4 years of age after heart surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest or low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation. 1999;100:526–32.PubMedCrossRef
Hovels-Gurich HH, Bauer SB, Schnitker R, et al. Long-term outcome of speech and language in children after corrective surgery for cyanotic or acyanotic cardiac defects in infancy. European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society. 2008;12:378–86.
Goldstein DJ, Oz MC, Rose EA. Implantable left ventricular assist devices. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1522–33.PubMedCrossRef
Petrucci RJ, Wright S, Naka Y, et al. Neurocognitive assessments in advanced heart failure patients receiving continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2009;28:542–9.PubMedCrossRef
• Stein ML, Bruno JL, Konopacki KL, Kesler S, Reinhartz O, Rosenthal DN. Cognitive outcomes in pediatric VAD and transplant recipients: A pilot study. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31:S119. Different diagnostic and management strategies will be required to manage pediatric neurodevelopmental issues associated with MCS.
• Samayoa AX, Moffett BS, Khan MS, Mery CM, Heinle JS, Morales DL. Hospital costs for supporting children with ventricular assist device in the United States. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31:S119. With increasing focus on cost in pediatric populations, an attempt at defining the current costs in care is critical to process improvement.
• Morales DL, Adachi I, Heinle JS, Fraser CD, Jr. A new era: use of an intracorporeal systemic ventricular assist device to support a patient with a failing Fontan circulation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;142:e138-40. The traditional approach to MCS in children has been directed at biventricular circulations. The ability to successfully support single ventricle patients will address a growing area of need.