New causes and treatments for infectious diarrhea in children
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Infectious diarrhea is a universal and important health problem in the pediatric population. An expanding number of potential viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens have been associated with diarrheal disease. However, the epidemiologic association of a microorganism with diarrhea is only one step in the process of identifying new pathogens. Once the virulence mechanisms of these organisms are elucidated, a causal relationship can be more readily defined. This article reviews the etiologic agents of diarrhea in the pediatric population and focuses on the newer treatment and prevention modalities, including probiotics and vaccinations, which are used increasingly to combat these diseases.
- Caeiro JP, Mathewson JJ, Smith MA, et al.: Etiology of outpatient pediatric nondysenteric diarrhea: a multicenter study in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999, 18:94–97. This article reports on a multicenter epidemiologic survey of the major causes of pediatric outpatient diarrhea in the United States. This study recognizes diarrheagenic E. coli as an important and emerging pathogen in nonbloody diarrhea. CrossRef
- Adler JL, Zickl R: Winter vomiting disease. J Infect Dis 1969, 199:668–673.
- Bishop RF, Davidson GP, Holmes IH, et al.: Virus particles in epithelial cells of duodenal mucosa from children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Lancet 1973, 2:1281–1283. CrossRef
- Yolken RH, Wyatt RG, Zissis G, et al.: Epidemiology of human rotavirus types 1 and 2 as studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. N Engl J Med 1978, 299:1156–1161.
- Christy C, Vosefski D, Madore HP: Comparison of three enzyme immunoassays to tissue culture for the diagnosis of rotavirus in infants and young children. J Clin Microbiol 1990, 28:1428–1430.
- Hermann JE, Taylor DN, Echeverrria PE, Blacklow NR: Astrovirus as a cause of gastroenteritis in children. N Engl J Med 1991, 324:1757–1769.
- Gaggero A, O‘Rayn M, Noel JS, et al.: Prevalence of astrovirus infection among Chilean children with acute gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol 1998, 36:3691–3693.
- Snodgrass DR, Angus KW, Gray EW, et al.: Pathogenesis of diarrhoea caused by astrovirus infection in lambs. Arch Virol 1979, 60:217–226. CrossRef
- Woode GN, Reed DE, Runnels PL, et al.: Studies with an unclassified virus isolated from diarrheic calves. Vet Microbiol 1982, 7:221–240. CrossRef
- Jamieson JF, Wang EL, Bain C, et al.: Human torovirus: a new nosocomial gastrointestinal pathogen. J Infect Dis 1998, 178:1263–1269. CrossRef
- Center for Disease Control: Incidence of Foodborne Illnesses — FoodNet, 1997. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 1998; 47:782–786.
- Roels TH, Proctor ME, Robinson LC, et al.: Clinical features of infections due to Escherichia coli producing heat-stable toxin during an outbreak in Wisconsin: a rarely suspected cause of diarrhea in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 1998, 26:898–902.
- Slustker LA, Ries AA, Greene KD, et al.: Escherichia coli O157:H7 diarrhea in the United States: clinical and epidemiologic features. Ann Int Med 1997, 126:505–513.
- Donnenberg MS, Kaper JB: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 1992, 60:3953–3961.
- Huppertz HI, Rutkowski S, Aleksic S, et al.: Acute and chronic diarrhoea and abdominal colic associated with enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in young children living in western Europe. Lancet 1997, 349:1660–1662. CrossRef
- Girón JA, Jones T, Millán-Velasco F, et al.: Diffuse-adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) as a putative cause of diarrhea in Mayan children in Mexico. J Infect Dis 1991, 163:507–513.
- Rautelin H, Sivonen A, Kuikka A, et al.: Role of Aeromonas isolated from feces of Finnish patients. Scand J Infect Dis 1995, 27:207–210.
- Gracey M, Burke V, Robinson J: Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis. Lancet 1982, 2:1304–1306. CrossRef
- Kuhn I, Albert MJ, Ansaruzzaman M, et al.: Characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from humans with diarrhea, from healthy controls, and from surface water in Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol 1997, 35:369–373. This article reports on a controlled study of Aeromonas species from patients with diarrhea and species isolated from surface water that identified hemolytic cytotoxic strains common in diarrheal disease.
- San Joaquin VH, Griffis JC, Lee C, Sears CL: Association of Bacteroides fragilis with childhood diarrhea. Scand J Infect Dis 1995, 27:211–215.
- Padmanabhan V, Dahlstrom J, Maxwell L, et al.: Invasive intestinal spirochetosis: a report of three cases. Pathology 1996, 28:283–286. CrossRef
- Kader HA, Piccoli DA, Jawad AF, et al.: Single toxin detection is inadequate to diagnose Clostridium difficile diarrhea in pediatric patients. Gastroenterology 1998, 115:1329–1334. This article emphasizes that the detection toxins A and B in combination will substantially increase the positive identification of toxigenic C. difficile. CrossRef
- Donta ST, Myers MG: Clostridium difficile toxin in asymptomatic neonates. J Pediatr 1992, 100:431–434.
- Cleary RK: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. Dis Colon Rectum 1998, 41:1435–1449. This is a comprehensive review of C. difficile disease and its treatment, including the use of probiotics to treat recalcitrant disease and operative indications. The article is accompanied by an extensive bibliography. CrossRef
- Kappus KD, Lundgren RG Jr, Juranek DD, et al.: Intestinal parasitism in the United States: update on a continuing problem. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1994, 50:705–713.
- Cuffari C, Oligny L, Seidman EG: Dientamoeba fragilis masquerading as allergic colitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1998, 26:16–20. A retrospective review of 11 cases of D. fragilis-associated diarrhea that describes the disease’s common clinical features. Included is a case report of an infant with hemorrhagic colitis that responded to therapy for D. fragilis. CrossRef
- Santosham M, Burns BA, Reid R, et al.: Glycine-based oral rehydration solution: reassessment of safety and efficacy. J Pediatr 1986, 109:795–801. CrossRef
- Ribeiro Junior H, da C, Lifshitz F: Alanine-based oral rehydration therapy for infants with acute diarrhea. J Pediatr 1991, 118:S86-S90. CrossRef
- Gorbach SL: The discovery of Lactobacillus GG. Nutrition Today 1996, 31:2S-4S. CrossRef
- Vanderhoof JA, Young RJ: Use of probiotics in childhood gastrointestinal disorders. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1998, 27:323–332. s article presents a comprehensive review of the use of probiotics in pediatric disease including infectious diarrhea. It is accompanied by a referenced list of human trials with probiotics, including descriptions of diseases, agents used, and outcomes. CrossRef
- Goldin BR: Health benefits of probiotics. Brit J Nutr 1998, 80:S203-S207.
- Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Sheen P, et al.: A placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. J Pediatr 1999, 134:15–20. CrossRef
- Hilton E, Kolakowski P, Singer C, Smith M: Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrheal preventative in travelers. J Travel Med 1997, 4:41–43. CrossRef
- Isolauri E, Juntunen M, Rautanen T, et al.: A human Lactobacillus Strain (L. casei sp strain GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children. Pediatrics 1991, 88:90–97.
- Gorbach SL, Chang T, Goldin B: Successful treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. Lancet 1987, 2:1519. CrossRef
- Biller JA, Katz AJ, Flores AF, et al.: Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995, 21:224–226.
- Guarino A, Canani RB, Russo S, et al.: Oral immunoglobulins for the treatment of acute rotaviral gastroenteritis. Pediatrics 1994, 93:12–16.
- Bernstein DI, Glass RI, Rogers G, et al.: Evaluation of the rhesus rotavirus monovalent and tetravalent reassortant vaccines in US children. JAMA 1995, 273:1191–1196. CrossRef
- RennelsMB, Glass RI, Dennehy PH, et al.: Safety and efficacy of high-dose rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccines: report of the national multicenter trial. Pediatrics. 1996, 97:7–13. s article presents results of the US multicenter trial of a monovalent and tetravalent reassortant rotavirus vaccine that demonstrates efficacy in the prevention of rotavirus illness and dehydration.
- Joensuu J, Koskenniemi E, Pang X-L, et al.: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine for the prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Lancet 1997, 350:1205–1209. CrossRef
- Santosham M, Moulton LH, Reid R, et al.: Efficacy and safety of high-dose rhesus-human reassortant virus vaccine in the native American population. J Pediatr 1997, 131:632–638. CrossRef
- Velazquez FR, Matson DO, Calva JJ, et al.: Rotavirus infections in infants as protection against subsequent infections. N Engl J Med 1996, 335:1022–1028. CrossRef
- TuckerAW, Haddix AC, Bresee JS, et al.: Cost-effectiveness analysis of a rotavirus immunization program for the United States. JAMA 1998, 279:1371–1376. s analysis reviews the outcomes of the four major rotavirus vaccination trials and argues for the development of a national immunization program as a cost-effectiveness measure. CrossRef
- TacketCO, Mason HS, Losonsky, et al.: Immunogenicity in humans of a recombinant bacterial antigen delivered in a transgenic potato. Nature Med 1998, 4:607–609. s study presents the first human trial of transgenic foodstuffs that confer immunity against an enteropathogen. Volunteers showed both a serologic and mucosal response to the immunogen delivered in the potato. The response was similar to that of the immunogen alone. CrossRef
- Mason HS, Ball JM, Shi J, et al.: Expression of Norwalk virus capsid protein in transgenic tobacco and potato and its oral immunogenicity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1996, 93:5335–5340. CrossRef
- New causes and treatments for infectious diarrhea in children
Current Gastroenterology Reports
Volume 1, Issue 3 , pp 238-244
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Current Medicine Group
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors