Current Gastroenterology Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 480–488

Gastric Peptides and their Regulation of Hunger and Satiety

Stomach and Duodenum (J Pisegna, Section Editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s11894-012-0291-3

Cite this article as:
Stengel, A. & Taché, Y. Curr Gastroenterol Rep (2012) 14: 480. doi:10.1007/s11894-012-0291-3


Ingestion of food affects the secretion of hormones from specialized endocrine cells scattered within the intestinal mucosa. Upon release, these hormones mostly decrease food intake by signaling information to the brain. Although enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine were thought to represent the predominant gut–brain regulators of food intake, recent advances also established a major role for gastric hormones in these regulatory pathways. First and foremost, the gastric endocrine X/A-like cell was in the focus of many studies due to the production of ghrelin, which is until now the only known orexigenic hormone that is peripherally produced and centrally acting. Although X/A-cells were initially thought to only release one hormone that stimulates food intake, this view has changed with the identification of additional peptide products also derived from this cell, namely desacyl ghrelin, obestatin, and nesfatin-1. Desacyl ghrelin may play a counter-regulatory role to the food intake stimulatory effect of ghrelin. The same property was suggested for obestatin; however, this hypothesis could not be confirmed in numerous subsequent studies. Moreover, the description of the stomach as the major source of the novel anorexigenic hormone nesfatin-1 derived from the NUCB2 gene further corroborated the assumption that the gastric X/A-like cell products are not only stimulant but also inhibitors of feeding, thereby acting as so far unique dual regulator of food intake located in a logistically important place where the gastrointestinal tract has initial contact with food.


Brain-gut axisDesacyl ghrelinFood intakeGhrelinNesfatin-1NUCB2ObesityObestatinX/A-like cell

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Charité Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Division Psychosomatic Medicine, Obesity Center BerlinCharité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus MitteBerlinGermany
  2. 2.CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center and Center for Neurovisceral Sciences & Women’s Health, Digestive Diseases DivisionDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare SystemLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.CURE: Digestive Diseases Research CenterVA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare SystemLos AngelesUSA