Article

Current Gastroenterology Reports

, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 502-506

First online:

Diagnosis and management of anal cancer

  • Pascal GervazAffiliated withClinique de Chirurgie Viscérale, Hôpital Cantonal Universitaire de Genève Email author 
  • , Nicolas BuchsAffiliated withClinique de Chirurgie Viscérale, Hôpital Cantonal Universitaire de Genève
  • , Philippe MorelAffiliated withClinique de Chirurgie Viscérale, Hôpital Cantonal Universitaire de Genève

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Abstract

During the past three decades, anal cancer has served as a paradigm for the successful application of chemoradiation to solid tumors. Since the early 1990s, the increasing incidence of anal cancer in homosexual men has highlighted the causative role of oncogenic human papillomavirus infection. This review focuses on significant trends and developments in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, emphasizing three major aspects of diagnosis and treatment: routine screening and eradication of premalignant lesions in high-risk individuals; outcome of chemoradiation therapy in HIV-positive individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy; and potential improvements in chemoradiation protocols through improved radiation delivery technique and the combination of mitomycin with cisplatin in current prospective randomized trials.