Type 1 diabetes and gastroparesis: Diagnosis and treatment
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- Hasler, W.L. Curr Gastroenterol Rep (2007) 9: 261. doi:10.1007/s11894-007-0029-9
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Patients with gastroparesis present with gastrointestinal symptoms and non-gastrointestinal manifestations in association with objective delays in gastric emptying. The condition complicates the course of many patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, usually in those with longstanding poor glycemic control with other associated diabetic complications. The diagnosis is made by directed evaluation to exclude organic diseases that can mimic the clinical presentation of gastroparesis, coupled with verification of gastric retention. Current therapy relies on dietary modifications, medications to stimulate gastric evacuation, and agents to reduce vomiting. Endoscopic and surgical options are increasingly used in patients who are refractory to drug treatment.