The pathology of ductal-type pancreatic carcinomas and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: Insights for clinicians
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- Klöppel, G. & Lüttges, J. Curr Gastroenterol Rep (2004) 6: 111. doi:10.1007/s11894-004-0037-y
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The phenotypic classification of pancreatic neoplasms is based on their cellular lineage. Thus, tumors with a ductal, acinar, and endocrine phenotype can be distinguished. Most pancreatic neoplasms show a ductal phenotype and can be classified as ductal adenocarcinomas. Less common tumors with a ductal phenotype are the variants of ductal adenocarcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (including colloid carcinoma), mucinous cystic neoplasm, medullary carcinoma, and other rare tumors. Ductal adenocarcinomas most likely develop from ductal proliferative lesions arising in the pancreatic duct system. A recently adopted classification system for these lesions distinguishes between three grades of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Molecular studies have revealed that PanIN-2 and PanIN-3 lesions represent a distinct step toward invasive carcinoma.