Foodborne illness: New developments concerning an old problem
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Food borne illnesses continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, primarily as gastroenteritis but occasionally as other syndromes as well. Most of these illnesses are caused by a variety of widely known infectious agents, principally viruses, and are probably the result of common mistakes in food handling in the home or in restaurants. The epidemiology of food borne illness is evolving. Major changes in food production, distribution, and consumption have created opportunities for new pathogens to emerge and for old ones to reemerge, and the potential for widespread outbreaks is increasing. Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens resulting from the widespread use of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry is also an important concern. Clinicians must be aware of the changing epidemiology of food borne illness to recognize and manage these conditions in the clinical setting. In addition, clinicians are critical in the reporting of recognized or suspected food borne illness, so that public health authorities are able to investigate, understand, and ultimately better control them. A number of new techniques have been employed, and others under development will improve our ability to recognize and cope with food borne diseases.
- Mead P, Slutsker L, Dietz V, et al.: Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 1999, 5:607–625. For this review, the authors compiled food borne illness data from a variety of surveillance sources and described the overall burden of food borne disease. They then characterized the nature of food borne illness by pathogen and by severity of disease. The authors conclude that food borne illness is far more common than generally appreciated but causes fewer deaths than previously thought.
- Steele J: Food irradiation: a public health challenge for the 21st century. Clin Infect Dis 2001, 33:376–377. CrossRef
- Osterholm, M: The changing epidemiology of food-borne disease. Int J Clin Pract Suppl 2000, Dec:60–64. This is an excellent overview of many of the important changes in the pathogens, transmission patterns, and other aspects of the epidemiology of food borne illness.
- CDC: Food Net. Accessible at http://www.cdc.gov/foodnet/. Accessed February 28, 2002. For current data and information regarding food borne illness, this site is indispensable.
- CDC: Preliminary Food Net data on the incidence of food borne illnesses: selected sites, United States, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001, 50:241–246.
- Effler P, Ieong M, Kimura A, et al.: Sporadic Campylobacter jejuni infections in Hawaii: associations with prior antibiotic use and commercially prepared chicken. J Infect Dis 2001, 183:1152–1155. CrossRef
- Ackers M, Schoenfeld S, Markman J, et al.: An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica 0:8 infections associated with pasteurized milk. J Infect Dis 2000, 18:1834–1837. CrossRef
- CDC: Outbreak of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 infection associated with eating fresh cheese curds, Wisconsin, June 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2000, 49:911–913.
- Aureli P, Fiorucci G, Caroli D, et al.: An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis associated with corn contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. N Engl J Med 2000, 342:1236–1241. CrossRef
- Dentinger C, Bower W, Nainan O, et al.: An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. J Infect Dis 2001, 183:1273–1276. CrossRef
- CDC: Food borne outbreak of Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis among college students-District of Columbia, March-April 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2000, 49:1131–1133.
- Daniels N, Bergmire-Sweat D, Schwab K, et al.: A food borne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with Norwalk-like viruses: first molecular traceback to deli sandwiches contaminated during preparation. J Infect Dis 2000, 181:1467–1470. CrossRef
- Backer HD, Mohle-Boetani JC, Werner SB, et al.: High incidence of extra-intestinal infections in a Salmonella havana outbreak associated with alfalfa sprouts. Public Health Rep 2000, 115:339–345. CrossRef
- Quiroz E, Bern C, MacArthur J, et al.: An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis linked to a food handler. J Infect Dis 2000, 181:695–700. CrossRef
- Bender J, Hedberg C, Boxrud D, et al.: Use of molecular subtyping in surveillance for Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium. N Engl J Med 2001, 344:189–195. CrossRef
- Hutwanger L, Maloney E, Bean N, et al.: Using laboratory-based surveillance data for prevention: an algorithm for detecting Salmonella outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis 1997, 3:395–400.
- Putnam J, Allshouse J: Food Consumption, Prices and Expenditures: 1970–1995. Washington DC: Food and Consumer Economics Division, Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture; 1997. Statistical Bulletin No. 939.
- Andrews R, Feldheim J, Carman R, et al.: Concurrent outbreaks of Salmonella typhimurium in South Australia. Commun Dis Intell 1997, 21:61–62.
- Herwaldt B, Ackers M, and the Cyclospora Working Group: An outbreak in 1996 of cyclosporiasis associated with imported raspberries. N Engl J Med 1997, 336:1548–1556. CrossRef
- CDC: Hepatitis A associated with consumption of frozen strawberries — Michigan, March 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1997, 46:288–295.
- CDC: Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with eating alfalfa sprouts — Michigan and Virginia, June-July 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1997, 46:741.
- Taormina P, Beuchat L, Slutsker L: Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerg Infect Dis 1999, 5:626–634. CrossRef
- Woteki C, Facinoli S, Schor D: Keep food safe to eat: healthful food must be safe as well as nutritious. J Nutr 2001, 131:502S-509S.
- Schlosser E: Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York: Houghton Mifflin; 2001. Although not a scientific publication, this is a fascinating and important example of investigative reporting on the fast food culture in the United States today.
- Davies A, O‘Neill P, Towers L, Cooke M: An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 food poisoning associated with eating beef. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev 1996, 6:R159-R162.
- Altekruse S, Cohen M, Swerdlow D: Emerging food borne diseases. Emerg Infect Dis 1997, 3:285–93.
- CDC: Update: outbreak of Nipah virus — Malasia and Singapore, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999, 48:335–337.
- Osterholm M: Emerging infections: another warning. N Engl J Med 2000, 342:1280–1281. CrossRef
- Gorbach S: Antimicrobial use in animal feed: time to stop. N Engl J Med 2001, 345:1202–1203. CrossRef
- Dunne E, Fey P, Kludt P, et al.: Emergence of domestically acquired ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections associated with AmpC beta lactamase. JAMA 2000, 284:3151–3156. CrossRef
- Smith K, Besser J, Hedberg C, Leano F, et al.: Quinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections in Minnesota, 1992-1998. Investigation Team. N Engl J Med 1999, 340:1525–1532. CrossRef
- CDC: Establishment of a national surveillance program for antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1996, 45:110–111.
- White D, Zhao S, Sudler R, et al.: The isolation of antibioticresistant Salmonella from retail ground meats. N Engl J Med 2001, 345:1147–1154. CrossRef
- Palmer S, Houston H, Lervy B, et al.: Problems in the diagnosis of foodborne infection in general practice. Epidemiol Infect 1996, 117:479–484. CrossRef
- CDC: Diagnosis and management of food borne illnesses: a primer for physicians. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001, 50 RR-2:1–69. This is an exceptionally well-presented and complete reference for clinicians who manage food borne illnesses. The authors present the pathogens, laboratory testing, and treatment, as well as information regarding additional resources.
- Svensson L: Diagnosis of food borne viral infections in patients. Int J Food Microbiol 2000, 59:117–126. CrossRef
- Brown C, Cann J, Simons G, et al.: Outbreak of Norwalk virus in a Caribbean island resort: application of molecular diagnostics to ascertain the vehicle of infection. Epidemiol Infect 2001, 126:425–432. CrossRef
- Guerrant R, Van Gilder T, Steiner T, et al.: Practice guidelines for the management of infectious diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis 2001, 32:331–351. The authors provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of acute diarrhea of all types, including those of food borne significance. CrossRef
- Jacobs R, Grover S, Meyerhoff A, Paivanas T: Cost effectiveness of vaccinating food service workers against hepatitis A infection. J Food Prot 2000, 63:768–774.
- Hedberg C, Smith K, Besser J, et al.: Limitations of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for the routine surveillance of Campylobacter infections. J Infect Dis 2001, 183:164–167. CrossRef
- Olsen S, Hansen G, Bartlett L, et al.: An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with food handler contamination: the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Infect Dis 2001, 183:164–167. CrossRef
- Torok T, Tauxe R, Wise R, et al.: A large community outbreak of salmonellosis caused by intentional contamination of restaurant salad bars. JAMA 1997, 278:389–395. CrossRef
- Kolavic S, Kimura A, Simons S, et al.: An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae type 2 among laboratory workers due to intentional food contamination. JAMA 1997, 278:396–398. CrossRef
- Rodman J, Frost F, Davis-Burchat L, et al.: Pharmaceutical sales a method of disease surveillance. J Environ Health 1997, 60:8–14.
- Miller J, Mikol Y: Surveillance for diarrheal disease in New York City. J Urban Health 1999, 76:388–390. CrossRef
- CDC: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Accessible at http://www2.cdc.gov/mmwr/international/relres.html
- Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. Accessible at http:/www.cste.org
- Foodborne illness: New developments concerning an old problem
Current Gastroenterology Reports
Volume 4, Issue 4 , pp 308-318
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Current Medicine Group
- Additional Links