Current Gastroenterology Reports

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 72-81

First online:

Localized hepatocellular carcinoma: Therapeutic options

  • Afonso RibeiroAffiliated withDivision of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic
  • , David M. NagorneyAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, Mayo Clinic
  • , Gregory J. GoresAffiliated withDivision of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common malignancies worldwide. Recent surveillance programs have allowed early detection and diagnosis, but overall survival of patients with HCC remains poor. This article provides a definition for localized HCC and summarizes the array of treatments that have emerged and the salient literature and findings for each. Among the treatments reviewed here are surgical resection, orthotopic liver transplantation, and local ablative therapies such as cryosurgery, percutaneous ethanol injection therapy, and transarterial chemoembolization.