Current Diabetes Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 517–523

Stem Cell Educator Therapy and Induction of Immune Balance

Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes (D Dabelea, Section Editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s11892-012-0308-1

Cite this article as:
Zhao, Y. Curr Diab Rep (2012) 12: 517. doi:10.1007/s11892-012-0308-1

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that causes the deficit of pancreatic islet β cells. A true cure has proven elusive despite intensive research pressure by using conventional approaches over the past 25 years. The situation highlights the challenges we face in conquering this disease. Alternative approaches are needed. Increasing evidence demonstrates that stem cells possess the function of immune modulation. We established the Stem Cell Educator therapy by using cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs). A closed-loop system that circulates a patient’s blood through a blood cell separator, briefly co-cultures the patient’s lymphocytes with adherent CB-SCs in vitro, and returns the educated lymphocytes (but not the CB-SCs) to the patient’s circulation. Our clinical trial reveals that a single treatment with the Stem Cell Educator provides lasting reversal of autoimmunity that allows regeneration of islet β cells and improvement of metabolic control in subjects with long-standing T1D.

Keywords

Stem cell educator therapy Immune balance Immune modulation Cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells Hematopoietic stem cells Autoimmune regulator (Aire) Type 1 diabetes 

Abbreviations

Aire

autoimmune regulator

CB-SCs

cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells

DCs

dendritic cells

HLA

human leukocyte antigen

HSCs

hematopoietic stem cells

MSCs

mesenchymal stem cells

NK

natural killer cells

NO

nitric oxide

PB-IPC

peripheral blood-derived insulin-producing cells

PD-L1

programmed death ligand 1

TGF-β1

transforming growth factor-β1

T1D

type 1 diabetes

Tregs

regulatory T cells

TLR 3

Toll-like receptor 3

TLR 4

Toll-like receptor 4

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of MedicineUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

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