Current Diabetes Reports

, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 350–356

Virus Infections and Type 1 Diabetes Risk


DOI: 10.1007/s11892-010-0139-x

Cite this article as:
Roivainen, M. & Klingel, K. Curr Diab Rep (2010) 10: 350. doi:10.1007/s11892-010-0139-x


Common intestinal infections caused by human enteroviruses (HEVs) are considered major environmental factors predisposing to type 1 diabetes (T1D). In spite of the active research of the field, the HEV-induced pathogenetic processes are poorly understood. Recently, after the first documented report on HEV infections in the pancreatic islets of deceased T1D patients, several groups became interested in the issue and studied valuable human material, the autopsy pancreases of diabetic and/or autoantibody-positive patients for HEV infections. In this review, the data on HEV infections in human pancreatic islets are discussed with special reference to the methods used. Likewise, mechanisms that could increase viral access to the pancreas are reviewed and discussed.


Type 1 diabetesPancreatic isletsβ-Cell destructionEnvironmental factorVirusEnterovirusCoxsackievirusEchovirusProlonged infectionChronic infectionEnterovirus detectionDetection of viral RNAIn situ hybridizationRT-PCRImmunostainingVP1 immunostainingEnterovirus 5-D8/1 antibodyDiabetogenic mechanismDiabetogenic enteroviruses

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Intestinal Viruses Unit, Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and ControlNational Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)HelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Department of Molecular PathologyUniversity Hospital TuebingenTuebingenGermany