• Heller S, Kozlovski P, Kurtzhals P: Insulin’s 85th anniversary—An enduring medical miracle. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007, 78:149–158. This paper describes the background of insulin.
Gough SC: A review of human and analogue insulin trials. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007, 77:1–15.CrossRefPubMed
Hirsch IB: Insulin analogues. N Engl J Med 2005, 352:174–183.CrossRefPubMed
Brunner G, Hirschberger S, Sendlhofer G: Postprandial administration of the insulin analogue insulin aspart in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 2000, 17:371–375.CrossRefPubMed
• Freeman JS: Insulin analog therapy: improving the match with physiologic insulin secretion. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2009, 109:26–36. This is a review of earlier literature with insulin analogues.
•• Bartley PC, Bogoev M, Larsen J, Philotheou A: Long-term efficacy and safety of insulin detemir compared to Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes using a treat-to-target basal-bolus regimen with insulin aspart at meals: a 2-year, randomized, controlled trial. Diabet Med 2008, 25:442–449. This is a long-term study in a large cohort of T1D patients showing the best evidence for durable difference between analogue and human insulin.
Hassan K, Rodriguez LM, Johnson SE, et al.: A randomized, controlled trial comparing twice-a-day insulin glargine mixed with rapid-acting insulin analogs versus standard neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) therapy in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Pediatrics 2008, 121:e466–e472. CrossRefPubMed
• Chase HP, Arslanian S, White NH, Tamborlane WV: Insulin glargine versus intermediate-acting insulin as the basal component of multiple daily injection regimens for adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr 2008, 153:547–553. This paper provides documentation of the use of basal insulin analogue use in children in a large cohort with a separately reported continuous glucose monitoring system substudy.
White NH, Chase HP, Arslanian S, Tamborlane WV: Comparison of glycemic variability associated with insulin glargine and intermediate-acting insulin when used as the basal component of multiple daily injections for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009, 32:387–393.CrossRefPubMed
De Mattia G, Laurenti O, Moretti A: Comparison of glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes on basal insulin and fixed combination oral antidiabetic treatment: results of a pilot study. Acta Diabetol 2009, 46:67–73.CrossRefPubMed
Bolli GB, Songini M, Trovati M, et al.: Lower fasting blood glucose, glucose variability and nocturnal hypoglycaemia with glargine vs NPH basal insulin in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009, 19:571–579.CrossRefPubMed
• Fajardo Montañana C, Hernández Herrero C, Rivas Fernández M: Less weight gain and hypoglycaemia with once-daily insulin detemir than NPH insulin in intensification of insulin therapy in overweight type 2 diabetes patients: the PREDICTIVE BMI clinical trial. Diabet Med 2008, 25:916–923. This is a comparison of analogue and human basal insulins with evidence for lower weight gain with insulin detemir.
Davies MJ, Derezinski T, Pedersen CB, Clauson P: Reduced weight gain with insulin detemir compared to NPH insulin is not explained by a reduction in hypoglycemia. Diabetes Technol Ther 2008, 10:273–277.CrossRefPubMed
Sharplin P, Gordon J, Peters JR, et al.: Improved glycaemic control by switching from insulin NPH to insulin glargine: a retrospective observational study. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2009, 8:3.CrossRefPubMed
•• Sreenan S, Virkamäki A, Zhang K, Hansen JB: Switching from NPH insulin to once-daily insulin detemir in basal-bolus-treated patients with diabetes mellitus: data from the European cohort of the PREDICTIVE study. Int J Clin Pract 2008, 62:1971–1980. This shows data from a very large observational study, complementing data from randomized controlled trials with real-life data from an unselected population.
Meneghini LF, Dornhorst A, Sreenan S: Once-daily insulin detemir in a cohort of insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a sub-analysis from the PREDICTIVE study. Curr Med Res Opin 2009, 25:1029–1035.CrossRefPubMed
Preumont V, Buysschaert M, De Beukelaer S, Mathieu C: Insulin detemir in routine clinical practice: a 26-week follow-up in type 1 diabetic patients from the Belgian PREDICTIVE Cohort. Acta Clin Belg 2009, 64:49–55. PubMed
Schiel R, Müller UA: Efficacy and treatment satisfaction of once-daily insulin glargine plus one or two oral antidiabetic agents versus continuing premixed human insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes previously on long-term conventional insulin therapy: the Switch pilot study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2007, 115:627–633.CrossRefPubMed
• Ashwell SG, Bradley C, Stephens JW, et al.: Treatment satisfaction and quality of life with insulin glargine plus insulin lispro compared with NPH insulin plus unmodified human insulin in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2008, 31:1112–1117. This is a crossover study comparing all-analogue with all-human insulin regimens, demonstrating greater patient satisfaction and QoL with analogue insulin therapy.
• Hod M, Damm P, Kaaja R, et al.: Fetal and perinatal outcomes in type 1 diabetes pregnancy: a randomized study comparing insulin aspart with human insulin in 322 subjects. Insulin Aspart Pregnancy Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008, 198:186.e1–e7. This shows documentation of use of rapid-acting insulin analogue use in pregnancy.
Lind M, Fahlén M, Happich M, et al.: The effect of insulin lispro on glycemic control in a large patient cohort. Diabetes Technol Ther 2009, 11:51–56.CrossRefPubMed
Raz I, Wilson PW, Strojek K, et al.: Effects of prandial versus fasting glycemia on cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: the HEART2D trial. Diabetes Care 2009, 32:381–386.CrossRefPubMed
•• Velojic-Golubovic M, Mikic D, Pesic M, et al.: Biphasic insulin aspart 30: better glycemic control than with premixed human insulin 30 in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol Invest 2009, 32:23–27. This is a direct randomized controlled trial comparison of analogue and human premixed insulins.
Clements MR, Tits J, Kinsley BT, et al.: Improved glycaemic control of thrice-daily biphasic insulin aspart compared with twice-daily biphasic human insulin; a randomized, open-label trial in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008, 10:229–237.CrossRefPubMed
Liebl A, Prager R, Binz K, et al.: Comparison of insulin analogue regimens in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the PREFER study: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab 2009, 11:45–52.CrossRefPubMed
Masuda H, Sakamoto M, Irie J, et al.: Comparison of twice-daily injections of biphasic insulin lispro and basal-bolus therapy: glycaemic control and quality-of-life of insulin-naïve type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008, 10:1261–1265. PubMed
•• Valensi P, Benroubi M, Borzi V: Initiating insulin therapy with, or switching existing insulin therapy to, biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (NovoMix 30) in routine care: safety and effectiveness in patients with type 2 diabetes in the IMPROVE observational study. Int J Clin Pract 2009, 63:522–531. This shows data from a very large observational study, complementing data from randomized controlled trials with real-life data from an unselected population.
Shah S, Benroubi M, Borzi V: Safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (NovoMix 30) when switching from human premix insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes: subgroup analysis from the 6-month IMPROVE observational study. Int J Clin Pract 2009, 63:574–582.CrossRefPubMed
Gao Y, Guo XH, Vaz JA: Biphasic insulin aspart 30 treatment improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in a clinical practice setting: Chinese PRESENT study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2009, 11:33–40.CrossRefPubMed
Jang HC, Lee SR, Vaz JA: Biphasic insulin aspart 30 in the treatment of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: a subgroup analysis of the PRESENT Korea NovoMix study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2009, 11:20–26.CrossRefPubMed
Sharma SK, Joshi SR, Kumar A, et al.: Efficacy, safety and acceptability of biphasic insulin aspart 30 in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the PRESENT study. J Assoc Physicians India 2008, 56:859–863.PubMed
Rodbard HW, Jellinger PS, Davidson JA, et al.: Statement by an American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology consensus panel on type 2 diabetes mellitus: an algorithm for glycemic control. Endocr Pract 2009, 15:540–559.PubMed
Raskin P, Matfin G, Schwartz SL, et al.: Addition of biphasic insulin aspart 30 to optimized metformin and pioglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the ACTION Study (Achieving Control Through Insulin plus Oral ageNts). Diabetes Obes Metab 2009, 11:27–32.CrossRefPubMed
Yoshioka N, Kurihara Y, Manda N, et al.: Step-up therapy with biphasic insulin aspart-70/30—Sapporo 1-2-3 study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2009, 85:47–52.CrossRefPubMed
•• Blonde L, Merilainen M, Karwe V, Raskin P: Patient-directed titration for achieving glycaemic goals using a once-daily basal insulin analogue: an assessment of two different fasting glucose targets—the TITRATE study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2009, 11:623–631. This is a demonstration of potential of analogue insulins for safe self-titration even to aggressive glycemic targets.
Oyer DS, Shepherd MD, Coulter FC, et al.: A(1c) control in a primary care setting: self-titrating an insulin analog pre-mix (INITIATEplus trial). Am J Med 2009, 122:1043–1049.CrossRefPubMed
Holman RR, Farmer AJ, Davies MJ, et al.: Three-year efficacy of complex insulin regimens in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2009, 361:1736–1747.CrossRefPubMed