, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 208-217

Hypertension in people with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: Pathophysiologic insights and therapeutic update

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Abstract

Hypertension (HTN) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are emerging as epidemics of the 21st century and are important components of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Evidence demonstrates a relationship between HTN, T2DM, and several vascular and metabolic abnormalities that are components of the MS. HTN affects nearly 70 million Americans and over one billion worldwide; likewise, the MS affects 44% of the US population above the age of 60 years and is rapidly increasing. HTN associated with the MS has certain pathophysiologic characteristics that provide clinical challenges. There is growing evidence that tissue activation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to endothelial dysfunction, microalbuminuria, insulin resistance, and subsequent increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. The notion that HTN is a metabolic as well as a vascular disease provides a new treatment paradigm.