Current Colorectal Cancer Reports

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 95–105

Intestinal Microbes, Diet, and Colorectal Cancer

Molecular Epidemiology (L Jiao, Section Editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s11888-012-0158-x

Cite this article as:
Vipperla, K. & O’Keefe, S.J. Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep (2013) 9: 95. doi:10.1007/s11888-012-0158-x

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common gastrointestinal cancer, and a significant health care problem globally. Dietary factors, for example high meat consumption and deficiency of fiber, calcium, vitamin D, and folate, are well-recognized to be associated with a risk of developing CRC. Colonic microbiota, by living in a mutual relationship and participating in key metabolic functions that compliment host physiology, is crucially important in the maintenance of our health. A state of imbalance in host–microbe homeostasis, termed dysbiosis, is associated with several diseases, including CRC. Epidemiological studies have revealed strong associations between diet, microbiota, and CRC. Substantial in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that the dynamic composition and diversity of colonic microbiota are affected by alteration of the diet, and that the balance between the beneficial and detrimental microbial metabolites is of crucial importance in mediation of the dietary risk factors of colonic carcinogenesis. A better understanding of complex diet–microbiota–CRC relationships can help us understand how diet affects the risk of CRC and will provide a more scientific approach to the development of novel strategies to prevent CRC.

Keywords

Intestinal microbiotaEnterotypeDysbiosisdietRed meatHigh-fat dietDietary fiberMicrobial metabolitesShort-chain fatty acidsHydrogen sulfideBile acidsInflammationColorectal cancer

Abbreviations

AA

African American

AICR

American Institute for Cancer Research

AOM

Azoxymethane

B-12

Cyanocobalamin

BA

Bile acids

CA

Caucasian American

CDA

Chenodeoxycholic acid

CH4

Methane

COX

Cycloxygenase

DCA

Deoxycholic acid

EPEC

Entero-pathogenic Escherichia coli

EPIC

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

ETBF

Entero-toxigenic Bacteroides fragilis

EA

European African

GF

Germ-free

H2

Hydrogen

H2S

Hydrogen sulfide

HCA

Heterocylic amines

IBD

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

LCA

Lithocholic acid

MA

Methanogenic archaea

MALT

Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

NA

Native African

NOC

N-nitroso compounds

PAH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

RS

Resistant Starch

SCFA

Short-chain fatty acids

SRB

Sulfate-reducing bacteria

WCRF

World Cancer Research Fund

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of General Internal MedicineUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and NutritionUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA