Personalized Medicine in Colorectal Cancer (CMS Rocha-Lima, Section Editor)

Current Colorectal Cancer Reports

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 57-67

BRAF, KRAS, and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase in the Management of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

  • Anelisa K. CoutinhoAffiliated withClinica AMO – Assistência Multidiciplinar em Oncologia, Salvador, BA, Brazil Email author 
  • , Gabriel ProllaAffiliated withInstituto do Cancer, Hospital Mãe de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
  • , Rui WeschenfelderAffiliated withCentro de Oncologia do Hospital Moinhos de Vento e Centro de Câncer da Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Currently, the incorporation of monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment is a reality. Mutated genes such as those encoding KRAS, BRAF, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase have been implicated in the lack of efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. This review briefly describes each of these genes and their pathways, as well as their prevalence in colorectal cancer tumors. The main purpose of this article is to correlate KRAS, BRAF, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase individually in the management of metastatic colorectal cancer, their real influence as predictive and/or prognostic markers, and this correlation with treatment outcome. Lastly, it concisely points some of the possible resistance mechanisms for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.


Metastatic colorectal cancer KRAS BRAF Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Personalized medicine Molecular markers Predictive markers Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor resistance Gene mutations Signaling pathway in colorectal cancer