Current Colorectal Cancer Reports

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 57–67

BRAF, KRAS, and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase in the Management of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

  • Anelisa K. Coutinho
  • Gabriel Prolla
  • Rui Weschenfelder
Personalized Medicine in Colorectal Cancer (CMS Rocha-Lima, Section Editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s11888-012-0152-3

Cite this article as:
Coutinho, A.K., Prolla, G. & Weschenfelder, R. Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep (2013) 9: 57. doi:10.1007/s11888-012-0152-3


Currently, the incorporation of monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment is a reality. Mutated genes such as those encoding KRAS, BRAF, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase have been implicated in the lack of efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. This review briefly describes each of these genes and their pathways, as well as their prevalence in colorectal cancer tumors. The main purpose of this article is to correlate KRAS, BRAF, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase individually in the management of metastatic colorectal cancer, their real influence as predictive and/or prognostic markers, and this correlation with treatment outcome. Lastly, it concisely points some of the possible resistance mechanisms for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.


Metastatic colorectal cancerKRASBRAFPhosphatidylinositol 3-kinasePersonalized medicineMolecular markersPredictive markersEpidermal growth factor receptor inhibitorsAnti-epidermal growth factor receptor resistanceGene mutationsSignaling pathway in colorectal cancer

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anelisa K. Coutinho
    • 1
  • Gabriel Prolla
    • 2
  • Rui Weschenfelder
    • 3
  1. 1.Clinica AMO – Assistência Multidiciplinar em Oncologia, Salvador, BA, BrazilSalvadorBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto do Cancer, Hospital Mãe de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS, BrazilPorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Centro de Oncologia do Hospital Moinhos de Vento e Centro de Câncer da Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Porto Alegre, RS, BrazilPorto AlegreBrazil