Current Cardiology Reports

, 15:349

HDL Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Outcomes: What Is the Evidence?

Ischemic Heart Disease (D Mukherjee, Section Editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s11886-013-0349-3

Cite this article as:
Rubenfire, M. & Brook, R.D. Curr Cardiol Rep (2013) 15: 349. doi:10.1007/s11886-013-0349-3
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Ischemic Heart Disease


The relationship between low concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and heightened risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease has been known for decades. Despite the consistent inverse relationship among epidemiological studies, the linkage between a residual low HDL-C among patients treated with statins and excess cardiovascular risk is less clearly established. Encouraging results from trials using niacin over the past 40 years have not been validated among more recent trials in patients taking contemporary anti-atherosclerotic therapy. Emerging evidence suggests that certain subsets of HDL particles may be more protective and/or more closely associated with CV disease than others, which may impact therapeutic benefits. Ongoing clinical trials will clarify whether raising HDL-C per se directly translates into a reduction in hard CV events. Until those results are available, the clinician is left with only weak evidence to support whether or not to target treatment of HDL-C with pharmacological therapy.


High density lipoprotein cholesterol Coronary heart disease Coronary disease risk HDL function HDL particles Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor AIM-HIGH Reverse cholesterol transport 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.From the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.24 Frank Lloyd Wright Dr. PO Box 322Ann ArborUSA

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