Current Cardiology Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 429-439

First online:

Antegrade, Retrograde, and Combination Strategies for Chronic Total Occlusions

  • Philippe GenereuxAffiliated withColumbia University Medical Center
  • , George DangasAffiliated withColumbia University Medical Center Email author 

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Chronic total occlusion (CTO) represents one of the most challenging lesion subsets faced by the interventional cardiologist. CTO is a common problem, being present in more than 30% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Over the past 10 years, the success rate of recanalization has increased from approximately 50–85%. Developments in guidewire technology, imaging technique, and coronary devices have contributed to the improved prognosis of patients affected by a CTO lesion. Enhancement in antegrade and retrograde techniques of recanalization also result in improved outcomes. Benefits of CTO recanalization may include symptom relief, decreased need for coronary artery bypass graft surgery, improved left ventricular ejection fraction, and in some cases an improved survival.


Chronic total occlusion Angioplasty Coronary artery disease