, Volume 7, Issue 6, pp 465-470

Obesity and lipids

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Obesity increases cardiovascular risk through multiple mechanisms. Abdominal (visceral) adiposity is metabolically active and is largely responsible for the atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, chronic inflammatory state, and prothrombotic state that constitute the metabolic syndrome, and the subsequent increased risk for cardiovascular disease and acute coronary events. Cholesterol guidelines for assessing cardiovascular risk have traditionally focused on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and reduction of plasma LDL has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events and total mortality. However, the cardiovascular risks associated with the dyslipidemia of obesity—characterized by low levels of high-density lipoprotein; increased triglycerides; increased subfractions of small, dense LDL; and increased levels of apolipoprotein B-100—are also now well recognized.