Current Cardiology Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 45–51

The future of real-time cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

  • Krishna S. Nayak
  • Bob S. Hu

DOI: 10.1007/s11886-005-0010-x

Cite this article as:
Nayak, K.S. & Hu, B.S. Curr Cardiol Rep (2005) 7: 45. doi:10.1007/s11886-005-0010-x


Dynamic changes in cardiac structure and function are usually examined by real-time imaging techniques such as angiography or echocardiography. MRI has many advantages compared with these established cardiac imaging modalities. However, system hardware and software limitations have limited cardiac MRI to gated acquisitions that are lengthy and often result in failed acquisitions and examinations. Recently, MRI has evolved into a technique capable of imaging dynamic processes in real time. Improvements in hardware, pulse sequences, and image reconstruction algorithms have enabled real-time cardiac MRI with high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution, and various types of image contrast without requiring cardiac gating or breath-holding. This article provides an overview of current capability and highlights key technical and clinical advances. The future prospects of real-time cardiac MRI will depend on 1) the development of techniques that further improve signal to noise ratio, contrast, spatial resolution, and temporal resolution, without introducing artifacts; 2) the development of software infrastructure that facilitates rapid interactive examination; and 3) the development and validation of several new clinical assessments.

Copyright information

© Current Science Inc 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krishna S. Nayak
    • 1
  • Bob S. Hu
  1. 1.Electrical Engineering-SystemsUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA