, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 457-463

Addressing cardiovascular risk beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol story

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Abstract

A large body of evidence from numerous, well-controlled, randomized trials demonstrates that treatment with statins reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although these observations are important and have resulted in the adoption of standard of care approaches to the management of CVD risk, they do not tell the whole story. When reviewing these landmark trials it is clear that on average two thirds of events are not prevented. This leads to the evaluation of risk beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This review focuses on the association of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and increased CVD risk, the published trials that study the effect of raising HDL cholesterol on CVD outcomes, and the novel approaches toward HDL cholesterol raising that are on the horizon.